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  • Foraging Guidelines | Hoelle Lab

    Home Database Maps Guidelines Engaging Ebot Cultivating Communities IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT Foraging Guidelines Safety & Health Never eat anything you are unsure of as many plants have toxic look-alikes. Check your identification against multiple sources. Seek a professional opinion when a plant can not be confirmed. Avoid spines and other plant hazards. Be aware of potential allergies. For example, natal plums should not be eaten by those with latex allergies. Be aware that most plants on the UCSB campus are watered with reclaimed water. Refer to this study: Reclaimed Water Use in the Landscape. Avoid pesticide consumption. Always wash what is foraged and be aware of pesticide use, especially when foraging for weeds. On campus, Roundup is used on the soil for post-emergent weed control. Avoid landscaped areas where pesticides may be used. Some plants absorb toxins more than others. Legal Do not forage on private property. Always seek permission from property owners before taking fruit or plants. Know your rights. Foraging in public spaces and from plants that are overhanging from private property into public space is permitted in California. Do not forage in protected or conservation areas. This includes the campus lagoon, coal oil point reserve, and more . Respect conservation efforts and local ecologies. Do not forage in California State Parks . Refer to National Park sites for specified foraging information. For example, Yosemite. Do not forage native, threatened or endangered plants. Refer to California Laws Protecting Native Plants. Ethical Be respectful of people, including landscapers. Though fruit may be overhanging, maintain a good reputation for foragers by being respectful of property owners. Use the opportunity to get to know neighbors and those who maintain the landscape. Be respectful of plants and the landscape areas. Avoid climbing or harming trees and plants; usually it is better for the plant to cut th fruit from it than to pull it. Be respectful of cultural heritage sites. Do not forage from the Chumash Garden on campus. Avoid over-harvesting. Take only what you need so others may also enjoy foraging. The typical rule is to never harvest more than 1/3 of a plant or 1/3 of a population of plants. Environmental and Wildlife Hazards Poison Oak Be careful not to step on or brush up against poison oak! Many people are somewhat allergic (local itchiness) and some people are VERY allergic (full body, systemic reaction with blisters and swelling everywhere) to the oils on the sticks and leaves. It has many different appearances depending on where you find it. In wet, shady areas, this plant can have beautiful, broad, bright green leaves, with deep lobes. In dry, hot, sunny areas, the leaves can be very small, barely lobed, crumpled, and dark, dark red. Regardless, the leaves are in clusters of three (Leaves of three, let it be! If it’s hairy, it’s a berry!). In the winter, the plant has no leaves, but once you get to know the plant, the branches are pretty noticeable (they look like they are reaching for you, often with tiny little buds on the ends); beware: the leaf-less sticks ARE still poisonous. Poison oak usually starts out with green leaves in the spring and turns steadily redder until the leaves fall off in fall or winter. Poison oak can grow like a weed, a shrub, a tree, a vine or a liana. If you aren’t sure if it’s poison oak, assume it is! Better safe than sorry. If you do happen to encounter poison oak, wash as quickly as possible with cold water and soap; there are also special soaps that help get rid of poison oak or you can run Mugwort all over the affected area. Poison oak is most commonly found in more natural spaces like around the lagoon, but I regularly see little poison oak sprouts in out of the way planters on campus. Ticks There are four types of these blood sucking biting arachnids in California. These can all transmit diseases to humans, many of which have horrible, lasting symptoms, like lyme, and others that can be deadly. It is key that you check yourself for ticks after you brush up against plants; they can even fall from trees, so make sure you check everywhere, especially in the darker parts of your body like beneath clothes, along the hairline and where the sun don’t shine. If you find a tick on yourself that has bitten you, the best recommendation is to see a professional to have it removed as quickly as possible; often, they recommend antibiotics as well. It is very difficult to remove a tick properly without it breaking apart and spreading disease faster. Bees & Wasps Thankfully, the most common bee you are going to see around Isla Vista is the European Honey Bee. The black and orange/yellow striped female worker bees with fuzzy bodies are the ones that can sting you, but they are rarely aggressive unless you are threatening their bodies or hives. That being said, some wasp species (like the Yellow Jacket) are very aggressive. Some people aren’t very allergic (local swelling and itching) and others can die from anaphylactic shock, so please be careful! Also, allergies get worse the more often you get stung. Black Widow Spiders These lovely arachnids like to hide in cool, dark places. They are pretty distinguishable by their large black bodies and long black legs, but if you get the pleasure of peering under them, they should also have a red hour-glass on their ‘belly’. They typically won’t attack you unless you threaten them or squish them. Try to look under leaves and fruit before you touch the plants you are foraging, because you never know where these critters can be hiding. They dwell in sticky, convoluted webs that don't appear to have any sort of particular rhyme or reason. BEWARE: if you do get bitten you should definitely go to the emergency room because the venom is pretty gnarly. Keep in mind, there are also spiders called Brown Widows that look very similar but are mostly brown instead of black. Western Diamondback Rattlesnake You probably won’t be finding any of these venomous, fanged reptiles on campus, but if you venture into the Los Padres Mountains, during the dryer months, you’re bound to stumble upon one. The venom of these critters is very dangerous; if bitten, get someone to help you to the Emergency Room immediately (movement will spread the poison faster). If the triangular head and the diamond shaped patterns don’t scare you away, the loud rattle sound coming from its tail should! When foraging, avoid wandering through tall, dry grass or stepping in places where you can’t fully see the ground. Other Dangerous Plants We advise to not just go around putting plants in your mouth. Please only forage for plants that you can identify with 100% certainty. Get a botanist or ethnobotanical expert to help you identify plants if you have even a fraction of a doubt. Deadly Hemlock and Water Hemlock, Deadly Nightshade, and Castor Bean are all plants we need to avoid eating, and even touching. These plants are toxic and dangerous, as their names suggest. Stinging Nettle is actually edible, but if you don’t prepare it correctly or touch it with bare skin, you can get hurt.

  • News Archive | Hoelle Lab

    News Archive February 9-August 31, 2018 Garimpeiros: The Wildcat Miners of Amazon Rainforest Curators: Jeffrey Hoelle and Jonathan Rissmeyer, UCSB Library Senior Artist. Public Exhibition at the Ocean Gallery of the UCSB Davidson Library. December 13, 2016 Gold Fever in the Forest UCSB Current press release on Sapiens article, "Gold Glimmers in the Amazon." November 1, 2017 From Contested to Green Frontiers in Amazonia University of Florida, Center for Latin American Studies press release. February 20, 2018 The Brazilian Cash Cow UCSB Sustainability Living Lab July 6, 2018 Digging Deeper UCSB Current press release on "Garimpeiros" exhibition September 1, 2016 UCSB Public Affairs and Communications News Release for "Rainforest Cowboys" September, 2015 News Coverage of Public Lectures in San Angelo, Texas Fort Concho Students Learn About Life in the Amazon , September 16, 2015 San Angelo Native to Speak on Cowboys and the Amazon (San Angelo Standard Times) , September 10, 2015 Former Resident to Discuss New Book (San Angelo Standard Times) , September 6, 2015 "Postcards from the Amazon" Professor Returns to San Angelo (SA Standard Times) September 9, 2015 2015-2016 Publicity for Academic Lectures in the United States by Professor Hoelle Angelo State University , September 14, 2015 University of Texas at Austin Geography & Environment Colloquium , September 18, 2015 University of Texas -San Antonio Anthropology Fall Lecture Series, September 21, 2015 Southwestern University, September 22, 2015 University of Florida, October 9, 2015 UC Berkeley Geography Colloquium, October 14, 2015 UC Santa Cruz Environmental Studies, November 2, 2015 San Diego State Geography, December 11, 2015 Brown University , February 24, 2016 Yale Agrarian Studies Colloquium , February, 2016 Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Presentation, May 2, 2016 April, 2016 Media coverage of The Conversation article May 31, 2016 Rainforest Cowboys LASA Book Prize Press Release and Announcements UCSB Public Affairs and Communications, News Release , "A Best Book" University of Texas Press Twitter announcement on book award #1 University of Texas Press Twitter announcement on book award #2 August, 2016 Publicity and Press Coverage of Lectures in Rio Branco, Acre and Belem, Para (Brazil) Federal University of Para (UFPA)

  • First Peoples | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects The Chumash: First Peoples of UCSB and Isla Vista By Donovan Velasquez Are there Chumash sites around campus? The short answer is YES! Before becoming the familiar area students know today, there were dozens of Chumash sites all around the Goleta Valley. Unfortunately much of the cultural significance of these places has been lost due to development projects which have left the landscape completely altered. Today many of us focus on the scenic beauty around UCSB and the rest of the Santa Barbara area but often fail to recognize what these places mean to the people who have been living here long before the city was established. Why not take some time to learn about some of the amazing places nearby and get a deeper appreciation of how these places have changed? Whether for a project or simply personal education, the history of these sites provide stories which will show just how much a place can change and will keep the cultural past alive. ​ This map provides a way for people to take a look through time at their surroundings, from the site out at More Mesa to Henley Gate at our own front door. Next time you find yourself taking Route 217 to get back to campus, you will drive past these places and be able to share the cultural history of this place and may even inspire others to do research of their own. To get started, all you have to do is click the link below each timeline to get a rundown of the various uses of these locations. Have fun exploring! Peel Back the Layers of Time: Map Explore Timelines for 3 Major Chumash Sites: 1. Mexcaltitan Island 1542 View Timeline 2020 2. Henley Gate 1788 View Timeline 2008 3. S'axpilil: Golf Course 1769 View Timeline 2020 1 Chumash Place Names: 4. Tiptip : "Much Salt" UCSB Lagoon ​ 5. Ansiq’oyo : ‘Place Of Manzanitas’ The main mesa on which Isla Vista sits ​ 6. Mixas : "Place of Sand" Modern Elwood Beach ​ 7. Sismikiw : "Place of Mussels" Goleta Point on the corner of Campus ​ 8. ‘Ukshulo’ : "Stink Water" Currently called Devereux Lagoon ​ 9. P'ok'oy : The site of Coal Oil Point Meet the Researcher Thanks for checking out the map! I truly hope you learned something new and interesting about our surrounding area and just how much it has changed over time. Before doing the research for this page, I had no idea just how drastic some of these changes were and I didn’t want the cultural meaning of the land to be lost or overlooked by what sits there now. I love getting out and interacting with the environment and getting to educate myself about some of its past made me want to get out there more and rediscover much of what has been forgotten. Thanks again, and have fun exploring! ​ ​ Donovan Velasquez Biological anthropology major and education minor at UCSB SB Museum

  • Woven Wonders | Hoelle Lab

    Home Database Maps Guidelines Engaging Ebot IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT DIY: Woven Wonders Plants have more uses than just food! Plants have historically been immensely important for all manner of tools and survival necessities such as water, food, exposure protection, weapons for safety and hunting. You name it, plants can and have probably been made into it. Can you think of any specific examples of plants used as tools? Think back to elementary school and remember how Native Americans used them. ​ Elderberry trees have long, straight, pliable branches that are good for flutes, bows and arrows. Willow is good for friction fire spindles, medicine, and their floofy flowers makes good tinder. Trees are safe havens for food and shelter: you can use branches as a frame and leaves to keep you safe from cold nights and even rain if you make the shelter thick enough. Toyon wood is used for any number of tools, including fishhooks and digging sticks. Cattail, tule, and yucca, as well as other strong, fibrous plants, are really great for weaving. Weaving was a skill of immense importance for people who needed materials such as baskets, nets and mats to survive. The Chumash would even coat their baskets in tar from the beaches to make their baskets watertight. Yucca cordage was also used as a sewing needle with string attached, because the spines are so sharp and narrow and strong that they don’t easily break off. ​ What are some ways you use plants in your daily life? Here’s a quick list off of the top of my head: houses and furniture; food: vegetables, grains, tea, vegetable/olive oil, flavoring; cotton in clothing; paper and books; skin and hair products: perfume, scents, lipstick; fuel: fire to heat the house, fossil fuels; aesthetic landscaping; cultural expression, bouquet of flowers; medicines. ​ Warnings: Keep in mind, flax is toxic if ingested and yucca spines have toxins in them, so avoid stabbing yourself or eating the stalks. Collecting the materials: Please forage respectfully using the guidelines in the tab above. Cut flax, yucca and tule from the base of the stalks. You should keep flax soaking in water if you are going to start weaving more than an hour after you cut the stalks. Preparing the materials: For the best effect, you might want to prepare the flax by scraping a layer off the top of one/both sides of the flax so there is less moisture that will evaporate and shrink the finished design. This takes awhile and I haven’t figured out an efficient way to do it, so I usually don’t. ​​ If you have any cool ideas or ways to make your woven creations ‘your own’, please do! You have artistic license to do as you please. Flax Flowers: To make the flax flower, take one full flax leaf with a long stem, the longer the better. Split it down the middle until you reach the tough stem. Peel off the thicker ‘spine’ from the middle where you made the split in the leaf. Split both sides of the leaf into equal sections. Keep splitting until they are smaller than 1cm, stopping at the stem; the smaller the better but also harder to work with. Starting at the left-most section, fold the section under/behind the 2nd section and weave it in an over-under pattern through the rest of the segments. Do this over-under weaving for each of the other segments until you have only 1 left. The last segment is used to ‘turn corners’ to continue with the swirl pattern of the flower. It should also be woven over-under. Continue with this over-under and turning-corner process until the flax is too tapered off to work with easily. If some of the segments end up being thicker than others, it is okay to split them part-way through to make more even segments. Tie off the tapered ends artistically, either by tying in pairs or twisting or putting them through the back. Cordage: Strip two very thin pieces of flax off the main leaf. Tie one end of one piece to one end of the other piece with an overhand knot. Grasp the flax at the knot. Twist the piece on the left twice counterclockwise (toward your body), very tightly. Put the piece on the right over and to the left of the twisted piece (clockwise away from your body). Twist the untwisted piece twice counterclockwise. Repeat until you reach the length of cordage you desire. Tie off at the bottom. If you want thicker cordage, you will need to use many strips of flax, simply splitting those strips into two groups and doing the same process as mentioned above. If you want longer cordage you will need to twist in new flax straps as you move down, preferably not twisting in new pieces at the same time because that will create a bulge and a weak point in your rope. ​ Tule Mats: Lay out 7 evenly sized and shaped stalks. Make sure tule pieces are approximately the same width/thickness along the full length; cut off tapered ends. Bend only the rounded side (if relevant), because the concave side will crack. Weigh down one side of the seven stalks. Weave under-over style 7 other evenly sized and shaped stalks as tightly as possible to make a woven mat with long unwoven edges. Fold the unwoven edges up over themselves and weave them back through to make rounded edges and to finish the mat. Flax Baskets: To make a basket: Lay out 7 evenly sized and shaped leaves. Make sure flax are approximately the same width/thickness along the full length; cut off tapered ends. Weigh down one side of the seven leaves. Weave under-over 7 other evenly sized and shaped leaves as tightly as possible to make a woven mat with long unwoven edges. Fold the unwoven edges up. Take longer leaves (should be the length of the widths of the 14 leaves already used plus 2 ˜ if each leaf is 1 inch wide you want these leaves to be 16 inches long). Weave them between the bent upwards edges. If the leaves aren’t long enough, weave new ones in a couple inches from the ends. End the edges of the basket by folding the ends over and weaving them through the sides and bottom. Sources: An Ethnobotany and Nature Connection unit taught by Kirsten Cook as a project from ENVS 127B Charlie Coupal's Wilderness Survival course

  • Chumash Appreciation | Hoelle Lab

    "Chumash Appreciation" Acorn Dumpling Stew and Chia Lemonade Home About Projects Video by Logan Snyder Song: "Basic Space" by The XX Recipe: Acorn Dumpling Stew Ingredients: Soup base: Dried seaweed packs Water ​ Nut flour dumplings: 1/2 cup nut flour blend​ 1/4 cup all-purpose flour 1 cup milk (I used almond milk) 2 tablespoons butter 1/2 teaspoon salt 1 beaten egg Cracked black pepper and a grating of nutmeg ​ Meat: A large hunk of stewing beef (I personally do not like beef that much, so you could just use vegetables, or even just the dumplings with acorn meal soup​) Directions: Soup base: Blend up dried seaweed until powdery Boil water and mix powdered seaweed into broth ​ Stewing meat/vegetables: If stewing meat, place in a large, tall-rimmed pot and fill with broth up 1/4 of the way over the meat, simmer on low heat for about 2 and a half hours If stewing vegetables, saute in a pan and then add the broth, simmer on low heat for about 1 hour ​ Dumplings: Simmer the milk, butter, and salt in a pan on low heat Whisk both flours together, and add to the milk, butter, salt mixture Stir to combine until a dough starts to form and easily comes out of the pan Let the dough cool, and then add the beaten egg, pepper, and nutmeg Mix together, and drop spoon fulls into the simmering soup After about 3-5 minutes, the dumplings and soup will be ready! ​ Optional: Add the nut flour straight into the broth to thicken up the stew and eat without meat, vegetables, or dumplings ​ Recipe: Chia Lemonade Ingredients: Apple juice ​ Lemon juice ​ Chia seeds Directions: Add the juice of 1 lemon to a cup of apple juice Add 1/4 cup chia seeds, and let sit for about 30 minutes Chill in fridge or add ice, or enjoy as is! Recipes with Cultural Significance: For the past two videos, I have been focused on providing knowledge about the local environment and how to create easy, flavorful food for cheap. The inspiration for this video comes from the people that have been living off the land in the Isla Vista area for the past 15,00 years. I wanted to dedicate this episode to those whose land we are living upon by creating a modern interpretation of a beef and acorn dumpling stew that I found within a native Californian cookbook. To learn more about the "First Peoples" of Isla Vista, explore Donovan's project page. First Peoples Read the Whole Book: For more Chumash inspired recipes like these, you can read the book, Seaweed, Salmon, and Manzanita Cider: A California Indian Feast , by Margaret Dubin and Sara-Larus Tolley. Read More Try Another Recipe

  • Immune System | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects Image by Mark Robinson Immune System Constantly Coughing? Elderberry Wants to Support You! The elderberry tree has a long history with human use. It grows in North America, Europe, and Asia. It is apart of the genus Sambucus, derived from the Greek “sambuke”, a musical pipe. Historically, various Native American tribes like the Creek, Cherokee, Mikasuki, and Seminole used its creamy white wood and easily pierced pith for piercing elk whistles, eagle and hawk calls, and medicinal hollow blow pipe for herbal remedies. Elder wood was often soaked in the berry juice to diminsh its bitter taste. The Pueblo people of the Southwest used elderberry to make ceremonial wands and other valuble items for sacred dances. Slovakian flutes called the fujara and koncovka were also made with elder wood (Barrie Kavasch). Aside from its uses as a musical instrument, it has been used as medicine and is finally getting some research by Western science. “Sambucus nigra L. products - Sambucol - are based on a standardized black elderberry extract. They are natural remedies with antiviral properties, especially against different strains of influenza virus. Sambucol was shown to be effective in vitro against 10 strains of influenza virus. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study, Sambucol reduced the duration of flu symptoms to 3-4 days. The full study can be found here: Read the Full Study Here are some facts about elderberry’s medicinal properties according to Healthline Magazine: High in vitamin C: There are 6–35 mg of vitamin C per 100 grams of fruit, which accounts for up to 60% of the recommended daily intake. High in dietary fiber: Elderberries contain 7 grams of fiber per 100 grams of fresh berries, which is over one-quarter of the recommended daily intake. A good source of phenolic acids: These compounds are powerful antioxidants that can help reduce damage from oxidative stress in the body. A good source of flavonoids: Elderberry contains the antioxidant flavonols quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin. The flowers contain up to 10 times more flavonoids than the berries. Rich in anthocyanins: These compounds give the fruit its characteristic dark black-purple color and are a strong antioxidant with anti-inflammatory effects Read the Full Article Importance of Fiber You should always practice sustainable harvesting when harvesting elderberry or anything else from nature. This also includes safe harvesting, so do not harvest from plants growing along busy streets and freeways, because the plant can absorb a lot of heavy metals and nitrogen from car emissions. Please do not harvest anything from culturally significant sites such as the Chumash Hertiage Garden on campus. “As time goes on we live more and more in our own dream and less and less within the dream of nature. Dualism is the proto-dream underlying clock time and all our modern dreaming. Dualism might be defined as the illusion that there are two discreet principles in the universe: self and other. Dualism implies isolation, conflict and a continuous struggle of opposing forces. … The dualistic dream engenders an endless procession of conflict, aggression, and destruction as each “solution” creates new problems to be attacked. ​ This is the most important difference between the dream of man and the dream of nature: nature dreams of unity and bliss, while man dreams of isolation and violence. Humans need unity and bliss to maintain their health of spirit. The dualistic dream starves the spirit and gives rise to the gamut of illnesses of the body and soul. The job of medicine, then, is to nourish the spirit by bringing people into the source of well-being--the dream of nature.” - Plant Spirit Medicine, pg 55. Try this Elderberry Tincture Recipe: Natural Treatment for the Cold and Flu Recipe by Lauren Arcuri , The Spruce Try the Recipe! About the Researcher Sources: Barrie Kavasch, Ethnobotanist and Master Herbalist. "The Herb Society of America's Essential Guide to Elderberry." Eliot Cowan. Plant Spirit Medicine. Sounds True, 2014. Print.

  • Karma Ch 4 | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects Image by Karma Rhythm Chapter 4: What/When to Plant in IV My knowledge in this area is a bit limited because I just gardened during this winter quarter, and rather unsuccessfully I might add. It was not until week 7 of the quarter that my seeds sprouted, I began to think they never would. I was focused mainly on bringing back this dying pepper plant, weeding and remodeling my plot, as well as nourishing my nettles, sour-grass, poppies and the gopher spurge. I attempted to plant cucumbers, carrots, daisies and some squash. The seed packets of all these, which I got from the local Dollar Tree all suggested that they should be planted between September and February in our area. ​ I have also been told by Seth, Andy, and Wayne that kale grows great in our area, especially during the winter season if you are looking for an edible plant to grow. The plant I saw grow the best this winter was my poppies, which doubled in size this winter. An interesting fact about the poppies, is that their seeds are mixed into the soil at the GHGP in an effort to help spread the flowers throughout the garden. I am stoked to keep the plot going into Spring and watch them bloom. ​ Besides my limited knowledge and experience, there is actually a comprehensive guide for interested students published by the UC Cooperative Extension all about what to plant in Santa Barbara Area, month by month. I think this resource will come in handy for students who want to plan their garden out in more detail or who are planting at a different time of year than myself. The guide provides lots of knowledge too about local pests and conditions necessary to grow each plant successfully. I honestly wish I found this guide at the start of the quarter, I would have consulted with it from the beginning. Graphic by Natalie Plumb View Guide Read Chapter 5 Sources: Compost guideline - EPA: Gardening with Fish Meal - GardenIQ: Gardening with Alfalfa Meal and Rock Phosphate - GardeningKnowHow:

  • Courses | Hoelle Lab

    Courses Undergraduate Courses: ANTH 2: Introductory Cultural Anthropology This course provides an introduction to the field of cultural anthropology and its history, methods, concepts, and contemporary debates. We survey the rich diversity of social and cultural life throughout the world, from arranged marriage in India and livelihood strategies in the Amazon to the unwritten cultural rules governing surfing etiquette and courtship rituals among UCSB students. Through a combination of readings, lectures, discussions, and primary research, students will acquire a comparative anthropological perspective with which to better understand social and cultural differences around the world and to see the many ways in which we are similar. ANTH 115: Language, Culture, and Place This course focuses on the interplay between language, culture, and place. Specifically, we examine the manner in which the environment structures language and culture, and the ways that humans give the world meaning through mapping, classification, and the creation of places and landscapes. We will read texts on a range of topics, from California accents to an endangered language in Amazonia, and analyze them to see how researchers use linguistic and anthropological methods to understand the role of language in different societies, cultures, and contexts. We will also learn about the power that language has to structure our interactions with people and places and how it is used to justify interventions and actions. ANTH 152/ENV S 151: Environmental Anthropology This course examines the ways that human beings interact with, use, and perceive the environment and nature. Beginning with contemporary American views of the environment and ideas of environmentalism, we explore the social, historical, political, and economic foundations of human-environment relationships across time and in different parts of the world. We maintain a sustained focus on two settings: one local (the North Campus Open Space), and the other a contested global landscape (the Amazon rainforest). Through readings, in-class activities and discussions, field trips, and research projects, engaged students will leave this class with: a better understanding of the complexity of contemporary environmental issues; a grasp of core social scientific theoretical approaches to the study of the environment; and skills in research design, critical analysis of texts, and the execution and presentation of scholarly and applied research. ANTH 197JH: Special Course Professor Hoelle has taught a variety of special courses over various quarters. Each special course is an intensive study or project focused on special problems related to Anthropology which are not covered by other courses. ANTH 197JH in Winter 2019 centered around human-environment interaction in the UCSB and Isla Vista community. The course resulted in the creation of the Cultivating Communities website, which includes ten creative student projects meant to inspire students and community members to learn more about the fascinating environment that we now know as UCSB and Isla Vista with the hopes of facilitating deeper forms of engagement with the environment. Another special course focused on the nature-culture dichotomy through the focus on South American gauchos, cowboys of the American west, and American Indigenous groups. ANTH 199: Independent Studies in Anthropology Professor Hoelle mentors undergraduate anthropology students as they execute a limited research project on their own initiative. Graduate Courses: ANTH 235B: Issues in Contemporary Anthropology This course is a survey of major theoretical trends in the field of cultural anthropology since the 1960s. We will read and discuss a range fo ethnographies and articles in order to connect contemporary scholarship with foundational anthropological thought, and to chart a course for the future of anthropology, your research. Writing assignments and in-class activities are designed to support this overarching goal, and to help students situate their research in relation to historical, methodological, theoretical, and applied concerns. ANTH 240A: Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology This course is designed to give students an overview of basic research methods in cultural anthropology. We will discuss epistemology, the relationship between anthropology and science, and the logic of social scientific inquiry, with an emphasis on connecting research questions, data collection methods, and knowledge production. Foundational anthropological research methods will be covered, including interviews, cognitive methods, text analysis, and participant observation. Students will practice these methods and related skills, such as coding, transcription, and database management, as part of weekly assignments. Throughout the course we will also focus on key issues and topics of importance for conducting fieldwork, including ethics, safety, gender, and power. Success in the course requires completing weekly assignments and readings prior to class and participating in discussions in class. ANTH 240C: Research Seminar in Cultural Anthropology This course is dedicated to the preparation of the MA paper required in the sociocultural anthropology program. It is a "capstone" seminar during which students will work on the completion of an already drafted paper. As explained in the sociocultural graduate guidelines, the MA paper can take one of two forms: an article-length work based on original, primary source research or a detailed draft of the PhD research proposal. Those who have opted to write a research proposal will have drafted that document in a prior proposal-writing class; those who have opted to write the article-length paper will have already conducted the research and prepared a working rough draft of that paper. ANTH 252: Political Ecology This course focuses on the anthropological study of human-environment interactions across cultures and contexts, with an emphasis on the ways that humans create, degrade, and are affected by the environment. The three main themes are: the material and discursive features of the environment, nature, and human-environment relations; the dialectical interplay between structure and agency in environmental practices; and the integration of anthropology and culture in contemporary multidisciplinary environmental research.

  • Beachcombing DIY Art | Hoelle Lab

    Beachcombing diy art Home About Projects By Natalie Plumb Video by Jake Potts What is Beachcombing? As UCSB students, we have the unique luxury of enjoying the beach each and every day…that is until we graduate. Why not take advantage of this amazing privilege that so few people are able to experience? Whether you are a surfer who spends their time in the ocean, an avid reader who relaxes with a good book on the sand, or someone who simply enjoys taking in the salty air and sounds of crashing waves, the UCSB and Isla Vista coastline provides something for everyone. In addition to presenting students with beautiful scenery and a place to relax, the UCSB coastline also offers an abundance of resources for creating unique pieces of art. Whether you are an art major or have never painted in your life, the coastline offers all the materials you need to realize your creative potential. Beachcombing encompasses the experience of walking the coastline, the area between the bluffs and ocean, from Campus Point to the end of Sands Beach. As you walk along the sand, you will encounter countless treasures, from perfectly flat rocks for painting on, driftwood for creating one of a kind sculptures, sea glass to puzzle into mosaics, to plants that can be made into paints or stylish jewelry. You may even find a discarded old Wavestorm surfboard, perfect for creating the ultimate picnic table. If you are interested in creating the perfect gift for your best friend, a beautiful sculpture for your room, or unique and functional artwork, this page will teach you all you need to know about sustainable beachcombing practices, tips and tricks for finding the best materials, and step by step tutorials for making these projects at home. The possibilities are endless! DIY Art Projects: DIY Art Projects Make Your Own Watercolor Paints from Plants Foraging for Flowers and Fruit Create Now Resin Jewelry Sun Room Designs Create Now Sea Glass Mosaic Picture Frame Recycling Man-made Materials Create Now How To: Beachcomb Responsibly Learn How Meet the Researcher: Thank you for visiting my page! I hope you enjoyed learning about a few ways to take advantage of our beautiful coastline in fun and creative ways. I began this project with the hope of encouraging students of all backgrounds to interact with our local coastline and build personal ties with our UCSB and Isla Vista environment. As an artist and surfer, I have found endless inspiration from beachcombing the area between the bluffs and the waves. Through my research, I have encountered local and global artists and discovered brand new and exciting ways to create art from the materials provided by our coastline. The possibilities for creativity are endless! Natalie Plumb Cultural anthropology student at UCSB ​ NP

  • Isla Vista Traces | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects Cultural Byproducts and Imagining in Human-Environmental Interactions By Delcia Orona This collection aims to capture a glimpse of the traces present in Isla Vista, on the UC Santa Barbara campus, and general surrounding area. With this collection, we can begin to recognize the commonly unseen or forgotten, and reimagine our influence on the environment. We can imagine an experience of a person in the environment, and imagine a history present at that space or location. We can explore the historic and imaginary possibilities of the means by which the trace came to be, as a ‘cultural byproduct’ of our existence in the world. These photos allow for personal exploration, discovery, and imagination, and hopefully inspire a sense of wonder, curiosity, or encourage rethinking our material surroundings. With practice, we can begin to practice “mindful looking”, and see the intrinsic value in the traces we often leave out of artistic, cultural, and academic spaces. Click Image to View Description What is a trace? “An indication or evidence of the presence or existence of something, or of a former event or condition; a sign, mark” (Reimer 2010). (34.4138497, -119.8582814) “. . . traces help us to explore the materiality - not only in the narratives - that resides at the intersection of the seen and unseen - sound and silence - the coming into being of the social and its recession . . .” (Napolitano 2015). (34.4091594, -119.8675078) Click Image to View Description Click Image to View Description Where are they found? Traces are found just about anywhere that humans have been - the most simple being through a footprint. We leave something behind everywhere we go. (34.4124620, -119.8478704) What do they mean? They have a number of meanings, while also meaning nothing at all. They are open to interpretation. They live a life of their own, existing and disappearing, changing over time. They indicate an experience, a history, and a presence in the environment. Each trace is unique in its meaning. (34.4091831, -119.8671276) Click Image to View Description Click Image to View Description Are they intentional? Not necessarily; they are neither intentional or unintentional. We are leaving traces every time we interact with the material world, and we are often unaware of doing so. (34.4140038, -119.8661982) Are they harmful? In this context, no. Many harmful traces have been recognized, and we tend to be conscious of harmful traces (i.e. the impact of tracts in a preserved area). However, sometimes we forget the future life that they may have, so it is always worth being conscious of our traces. (34.4135164, -119.8680738) Click Image to View Description Click Image to View Description Do they ever go away? Some do, and some don’t. Some have been around for a number of years, some maybe even made by the photographer. Some must be maintained by interaction, others washed away by interaction. Their existence tells a story (34.4093394, -119.8666606) Histories When seeing these traces, we can recognize that what is left behind is telling a story “underneath the surface” of what appears. We can ask: what happened here? (34.4123085, -119.8489191) Click Image to View Description Click Image to View Description Cultural byproducts A cultural byproduct can be understood as something ‘leftover’ from culture; something that has occurred or materially manifested from our presence in our environment. However, unlike other material products of culture, a byproduct can be seen as what has happened ‘in between’, with no necessary intentionality but unpredicted in its existence. (34.4202438, -119.8585506) Imagining Because the past life of this trace is not or may not be fully known, that allows the viewer an imagining of a past presence in this space, and an imagining of an experience. Because of that, imagining can also be an empathetic practice. (34.4140234, -119.8668936) Click Image to View Description Click Image to View Description Seeing Often times, these marks are ‘looked over’ or simply not recognized in our day-to-day lives. By highlighting them, we can learn to analyze the intrinsic value of these traces and cultural byproducts all around us as having a rich history, life, and presence in our environment, and learn to continue ‘investigating’ our environment in this same analytical way. (34.4118767, -119.8487243) Being present in our environment ‘Seeing’ and understanding our environment acts as an almost meditative practice. It allows us to explore our own individual presence in our environment in new ways, as if reimagining our influence in the environment, and how it is intrinsically undetachable from us. (34.4126476, -119.8484209) Click Image to View Description Explore these tools to learn more about how you can identify, interact with, and evaluate the traces you encounter in your environment. "The Visual Toolkit" The "Art of Seeing" Thick Description View Interactive Map Meet the Artist: Delcia Orona Delcia is anthropology major and linguistics minor at the University of California, Santa Barbara. She is originally from Parachute, Colorado, and hopes to attend graduate school in Europe for anthropology and sociology, or contemporary art and curatorial studies. Current Projects Seniors honors thesis: “Food politics and ethnography: oral histories and ‘story-telling’ in building a picture of local food networks in rural Colorado communities” SOC130A: “A Day in the Life of an IV Student (ft. Sustainable Food Practices) View her Work: DO

  • Publications | Hoelle Lab

    Publications Quantifying Cultural Values Associated with Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon (2018) . Journal of Land Use Science. ​ This study analyzes the distribution of cultural values associated with forest and non-forest landscapes among stakeholder groups shaping land use and land cover change (LULCC) in an agricultural/forest frontier in the western Brazilian Amazon. The study addresses theoretical and methodological obstacles to the integration of cultural data and social science research into the study of LULCC, providing simple, systematic, and more accurate ways of understanding this missing feature of land change. Read Full Article From Contested to "Green" Frontiers in the Amazon? A Long-Term Analysis of São Félix do Xingu, Brazil. Marianne Schmink, Jeffrey Hoelle, Carlos Valério A. Gomes & Gregory M. Thaler (2017). Journal of Peasant Studies. This contribution deploys a historical political ecology framework to analyze how decades of agrarian frontier change and land conflicts among actors on the ground in São Félix do Xingu, Brazil interacted with shifting national policy debates. Nearly a half-decade of field research in São Félix is combined with data from a 2014 field "revisit" to situate the current "greening" of policy and discourse within the longer term history of frontier development, revealing positive social and environmental developments and persistent contradictions and uncertainties. Read Full Article Jungle Beef: Consumption, Production and Destruction, and the Development Process in the Brazilian Amazon (2017). Journal of Political Ecology 24: 743-762. ​ In the western Amazon state of Acre, Brazil, increasing beef consumption is directly lined with local cattle production and environmental destruction, providing an opportunity to examine the relationships between these processes in a developing context. Interviews, participant-observation, and a standardized survey provide data on perceptions of beef and meat preferences, and how these relate to practices and patterns of consumption among a range of groups, from urban environmentalists to beef-loving cowboys. The results reveal how the hierarchical ordering of foods, with beef at the top, maps onto similar hierarchies of status and class, as well as notions of strength and nutrition. Read Full Article Tenure Diversity and Dependent Causation in the Effects of Regional Integration on Land Use: Evaluating the Evolutionary Theory of Land Rights in Acre, Brazil. Stephen G. Perz, Jeffrey Hoelle, Karla Rocha, Veronica Passos, Flavia Leite, Julia Cortes, Lucas Araujo Carvalho & Grenville Barnes (2017). Journal of Land Use Science 12(4). ​ In the present analysis, we focus on whether land tenure type modifies the effects of highway infrastructure on key outcomes highlighted in the ETLR framework. We take up the case of rural settlements along the Inter-Oceanic Highway in the eastern part of the Brazilian state of Acre, where there is considerable land tenure diversity. Findings from multivariate models for land titling, the castanha nut harvest and cattle pasture all indicate that the effects of infrastructure depend on land tenure type. These results confirm the importance of dependent causation behind land use and bear implications for theory on land change, infrastructure impacts, and land system science. Read Full Article Gold Glimmers in the Amazon. Jeffrey Hoelle, Michael Klingler and Peter Richards (2016). Sapiens . ​ For centuries, explorers have searched the Amazon for treasures. Today, gold lures thousands who dream of finding their own fortunes, or at least a better life. This photo essay examines how the daily life in the remote gold-mining camps of the Amazonian rainforest is difficult, dirty, and sometimes treacherous. But that's only part of the story. Read Full Article Brazil's Thriving Soy Industry Threatens Its Forests and Global Climate Targets. Jeffrey Hoelle and Peter Richards (2016). The Conversation . ​ Brazil's economy is teetering on the edge of collapse. The country's political regime has been rocked by recent corruption scandals, and impeachment proceedings are encircling the nation's leaders. And yet things couldn't be much better for Brazil's soybean farmers. Read Full Article Rainforest Cowboys: The Rise of Ranching and Cattle Culture in Western Amazonia (2015). Austin: University of Texas Press . ​ This ambitious interdisciplinary study is the first to examine the interlinked economic uses and cultural practices and beliefs surrounding cattle in Western Amazonia, where cattle raising is at the center of debates about economic development and environmental conservation. Click the link below to read the full text, reviews, and more. Read More Trans-boundary Infrastructure and Changes in Rural Livelihood Diversity in the Southwestern Amazon: Resilience and Inequality. Perz, Stephen G., Flavia L. Leite, Lauren N. Griffin, Jeffrey Hoelle, Martha Rosero, Lucas Araujo Carvalho, Jorge Castillo, and Daniel Rojas (2015). Sustainability 7(9). ​ Infrastructure has long been a priority in development policy, but there is debate over infrastructure impacts. Whereas economic studies show reductions in poverty, social research has documented growing income inequality. We suggest that a focus on livelihoods permits a bridge between the two literatures by highlighting decisions by households that may capture economic benefits but also yield social inequalities. We therefore take up two questions. First is whether new infrastructure allows households to diversify their livelihoods, where diversity begets resilience and thus affords livelihood sustainability. Second is whether households with more diverse livelihoods exhibit greater increases in livelihood diversity, which would widen livelihood inequalities. Read Full Article Cattle Culture in the Brazilian Amazon (2014). Human Organization 73(4). ​ This paper examines “cattle culture”—the positive cultural constructions associated with cattle raising and analyzes the paths that brought it to one of the “greenest” corners of Amazonia. In the western Amazon state of Acre, Brazil, the rubber tapper movement protested the arrival of cattle ranching in the 1980s, capturing worldwide attention with a message of sustainable forest-based development. Across Amazonia, groups who once opposed or were displaced by cattle are now adopting it—including Acrean rubber tappers and colonists. Drawing on primary data collected among rural and urban groups in Acre, I explain how cattle culture emerged in a state with a short and contested history with cattle raising. I focus specifically on the relationship between the cattle economy and cattle culture through analysis of three processes: local subsistence practices resulting in symbolic associations; the diffusion of market-oriented ranching and the dominant cauboi (cowboy) culture, and the ways that the two overlap and are negotiated among Acrean groups. Read Full Article Forest Citizenship in Acre, Brazil. Marianne Schmink, Amy Duchelle, Jeffrey Hoelle, Flavia Marcus Vinicio d'Oliveira, Jacqueline Vadjunec, Judson Valentim, Richard Wallace (2014). Forest Under Pressure: Local Responses to Global Issues . ​ The sections in this chapter trace the innovations in laws, institutions, public administration, and policy to promote forest-based development, alongside the opening of policy-making to citizen input. Data presented from government reports outlining policies, supplemented by available empirical research, show impressive gains in stabilizing deforestation, expanding forest production, and favourable but uneven socio-economic impacts of the state’s forest development programs. The chapter documents the successes in transformative institutional and policy development at the state level, remaining challenges, and lessons learned in Acre for potential application of sustainable development policies over the long term. Read Full Article Trans-boundary Infrastructure, Access Connectivity, and Household Land Use in a Tri-national Frontier in the Southwestern Amazon. Perz, Stephen, Andrea Birgit Chavez, Rosa Cossio, Jeffrey Hoelle, Flavia L. Leite, Karla Rocha, Rafael O. Rojas, Alexander Shenkin, Lucas Araujo Carvalho, Jorge Castillo & Daniel Rojas Cespedes (2014). Journal of Land Use Science . ​ We take up the case of the Inter-Oceanic Highway, a trans-boundary road being paved in the trinational ‘MAP’ frontier of the southwestern Amazon. We draw on a tri-national survey of households in rural communities across the MAP frontier to evaluate the effects of access connectivity on land use. At the time of fieldwork, paving was complete in Acre/Brazil, underway in Madre de Dios/Peru, and planned in Pando/Bolivia. This permits a tri-national comparative analysis. The results confirm different effects of access connectivity on land use by paving status; further, they also document crossborder processes stemming from trans-boundary infrastructure that affect land use. The findings call for more attention to the impacts of regional integration initiatives on landscapes. Read Full Article Black Hats and Smooth Hands: Social Class, Environmentalism, and Work Among the Ranchers of Acre, Brazil (2012). Anthropology of Work Review 33(2). ​ The objective of this paper is to increase our understanding of this enigmatic, powerful group through an ethnographic description of ranchers in relation to features of their villain label: elite status and environmental destruction. Drawing on 18 months of fieldwork with Acrean ranchers and other rural groups, I analyze the ways in which the ranchers conform to and challenge classification as an elite group in relation to economic and political power, describe how rancher status is constructed and expressed in social situations, and compare the extent to which other rural social groups agree with perceptions of the ranchers. Understanding the ranchers’ perspective, especially with regard to environmental debates, requires an examination of how they perceive their work in relation to history and ideology, and how they have adapted the term to defend their interests and engage current political debates centered on environmental preservation. ​ Winner of Eric Wolf Student Paper Prize, Society of Anthropology of Work, AAA ; Reprinted in Open Anthropology 3(1), "Hello Anthropecene Climate Change and Anthropology" (2015). Read Full Article Regional Integration and Local Change: Road Paving, Community Connectivity, and Social-Ecological Resilience in a Tri-national Frontier, Southwestern Amazonia. Perz, Stephen, Liliana Cabrera, Lucas Araujo Carvalho, Jorge Castillo, Rosmery Chacacanta, Rosa E. Cossio, Yeni Franco Solano, Jeffrey Hoelle, Leonor Mercedes Perales, Israel Puerta, Daniel Rojas Cespedes, Rojas Camacho, Adao Costa Silva (2012). Regional Environmental Change . ​ We suggest a more integrative approach to regional integration by appropriating the concepts of connectivity from transport geography and social–ecological resilience from systems ecology. Connectivity offers a means of observing the degree of integration between locations, and social–ecological resilience provides a framework to simultaneously consider multiple consequences of regional integration. Together, they offer a spatial analysis of resilience that considers multiple dimensions of infrastructure impacts. Our study case is the southwestern Amazon, a highly biodiverse region which is experiencing integration via paving of the Inter-Oceanic Highway. Read Full Article Convergence of Cattle: Political Ecology, Social Group Perceptions, and Socioeconomic Relationships in Acre, Brazil (2011). Culture, Agriculture, and, Food and Environment 33(2). ​ Cattle raising is currently the leading cause of deforestation in Amazonia, and an increasingly appealing and profitable way for a growing number of smallholders to make a living in the western Amazon state of Acre, Brazil. The Acrean rubber tapper social movement contested the arrival of cattle ranchers in the 1970s and 1980s, but cattle raising has expanded among smallholder groups, including the rubber tappers, over the past 20 years. Building on the legacy of political–economic analyses of Amazonian cattle raising, this study argues for an expanded view of cattle raising by incorporating perspectives on the cultural constructions surrounding cattle and intergroup socioeconomic relationships. Data obtained from surveys and participant observation are used to examine the factors that have contributed to the expansion of cattle raising across three Acrean groups, each historically distinguished by their unique forms of livelihood and associated identities: forest extractivist rubber tappers, agricultural colonists, and large-scale ranchers. It is argued that three factors have contributed to the growth of cattle ranching among these groups: political and economic shifts, which have made agricultural and extractive livelihoods less competitive with cattle raising; the spread of positive cultural views surrounding cattle raising; and the transition of intergroup relationships from conflict to cooperation in the cattle industry. ​ Winner of Robert Netting Student Paper Prize, Culture and Agriculture Section, AAA . Read Full Article Postcards from the Amazon (February - September 2010). San Angelo Standard-Times . ​ During my final year of dissertation research in Acre, Brazil I decided that I wanted to share my experiences with the people of my hometown in San Angelo, Texas. I asked the editors of the San Angelo Standard-Times if I could write a column about life in the Amazon and they agreed. Every two weeks I emailed a short story from Acre and these were published in print and online on Sundays in the column entitled "Postcards from the Amazon." The articles reflected my research interests in environment and cattle, but I also used this as a chance to write about Brazilian life and culture more broadly, touching on topics such as soccer, churrasco, saudade, and the days-long experience of riding a bus from Sao Paulo to Acre. Check out the e-book below to read through my postcards from the amazon. Cattle move along the highway in Acre, Brazil. Read Full Article

  • Karma Ch 2 | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects Image by Karma Rhythm Chapter 2: Finding a Place to Garden in IV I decided if I wanted to garden that the first step was finding an accessible garden plot. After looking into the options I noted that some gardens had very long wait lists and others were open to only specific residents, like the West Campus Gardens. Not the Green House and Garden Project though, where students can secure a plot for roughly $20 a quarter. ​ I found Seth’s email, who runs the garden, and reached out to him. By that weekend we had met up and made the exchange. He got the cash and the plot was mine. And it was huge and it was dead. It was that easy though and it surprised me that in 3 days and over the course of just 2 emails, I had gone from wanting to garden to having my own plot. That day there was a community exercise going on and I felt tense around some of the other gardeners I ran into, so after I got my plot I hurried off. I remember noticing for the first time in a while how nice the wind felt as I walked home, I think after this day I began to nurture my connection with nature more. View Campus Garden Map Read Chapter 3 Sources: UC Cooperative Extension

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