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  • Cooking on Lo Heat | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects Sustainable and Flavorful Food Practices within Isla Vista By Logan Snyder Within this three part series, I will guide you through the processes of gardening and foraging within Isla Vista, along with easy, flavorful, and sustainable recipes that you can cook. "Jamming Out" Foraging and Jam-Making in Isla Vista View Recipe "Simple Sustainability" Gardening, Pickling, and T acos from Scratch View Recipe Chumash Appreciation Acorn Dumpling Stew and Chia Lemonade View Recipe Recipes About Logan: I hope you enjoyed the shows! My goal for this series was to provide Isla Vista residents and anyone who comes across the page with some easy ways of interacting with the environment and creating good food out of what you find and buy. I learned to cook through a range of YouTube channels, at Barbareno (a local farm-to-table restaurant in downtown Santa Barbara), and from side by side tutorials from my family while I grew up. Food has always been a passion of mine, and I hope to inspire others to love cooking as much as I do. Logan Snyder Cultural anthropology student, UCSB

  • Eat Your Weeds | Hoelle Lab

    Home Database Maps Guidelines Engaging Ebot IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT "Eat Your Weeds" -Bailey McKernan

  • Mugwort | Hoelle Lab

    Mugwort Traditional Chumash Medicine "Dream Sage" Image by Anton Darius Home About Projects Chumash Elder Art Cisneros demonstrates a quick and easy dialogue with the plant spirit you wish to bring home with you. Video by Olivia Robért at El Capitan Creek, February 2020 While we were walking to the beach Art told me of a dear friend of his, a Chumash medicine woman named Cecelia Garcia who wrote a book with James David Adams, Jr. an Associate Professor of Pharmacology at the University of Southern California. The book was called Healing with Medicinal Plants of the West: Cultural and Scientific Basis for Their Use . In it Cecelia calls mugwort “dream sage”, because it is a powerful spiritual tool for dreamtime, just like sage is a sacred cleansing tool in the waking life. Mugwort has been used for thousands of years all over the world. It is a medicine that has been used for digestion, pain killer, insect repellent, and many others. It is a part of the genus Artemisia, named after Artemis, the Greek goddess of the hunt, wild women, and the moon. There are around 500 species of Artemisia distributed across Asia, Europe, and North America that have a rich history of use as a cultivated sacred plant. The name Mugwort is attributed to its historical use in flavoring drinks, specifically in beer. Mugwort has been used by women historically to stimulate menstruation and to aid unwanted pregnancies, because it acts on the uterus. 12th century texts extensively describe Mugwort as a menstrual tonic, and one 14th century text discusses Mugwort’s use in expelling dead fetal tissue after a miscarriage (Van de Walle 1997). The focus of my research on mugwort is its use for vivid dreams, astral travel, and divination. The reason behind its association with dreams is the psychedelic components present in the plant. “Like its abortive properties, Mugwort’s widespread use as a psychoactive substance is due to a variety of terpene compounds like α- and β- thujones (which also stimulate the heart and the central nervous system) (Alberto-Puleo 1978). Three additional terpene compounds are also found in A. vulgaris leaves, and work synergistically with α- and β- thujones to account for Mugwort’s hypnotic and psychedelic effects.” "Wild Mugwort at El Capitan State Beach" by Olivia Robért Referred to in Russian as “zabytko” which means forgetful, Mugwort’s strong camphor like oils, when inhaled, open up chambers of ancient memory within the brain, bringing one’s dream life stirring visions of past and future that overflow with magical imagery. The symbols which dance through our Mugwort-touched dreams pull out the cobwebs of our forgetfulness and assist us in remembering old, unwritten ways of healing and living that attend to the needs of the spirit and soul”. ​ – Judith Berger, Herbal Rituals This amazing little “weed” can be found growing in watery areas, and likes plenty of sun. If you are a UCSB student, look toward the IV Ethnobotany website to find where it grows around campus and Isla Vista. Visit IV Ethnobotany Drawing Meditation: In a phone interview with Betty Seaman, who trained with Eliot Cowan, author of Plant Spirit Medicine , said one of the best ways to get to know a plant is by spending time sketching it. The process of intent focus on its shape and characteristics will help when trying to dream with it, as well as noting where and how it grows. Ted Talk by Ralph Ammer : "How Drawing Helps You Think" "Mugwort Drawing Meditation" by Olivia Robért Dreamtime and Health: Dream health is considered one of the most important aspects of Chumash culture, but it is something Western society brushes off. The Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung looks at elements of the unconscious as they appear in dreams. The scientific world had begun to remember the knowledge which their ancestors once knew. Mugwort is one of the herbs that can illuminate dreams and bring clarity. Well, this interesting 2012 study goes in depth on the preparation of mugwort to treat anxiety and ADHD in traditional Chumash communities. The recipe for dreams is as follows: “To induce dreams, place the stems and leaves, under a pillow and sleep on the pillow. The fragrance helps with dreaming. When the plant dries, strip the leaves and stuff them into a small pillow. Place this under the regular pillow and continue sleeping on both pillows. This is a traditional use of A. douglasiana especially in very ill or aged people who cannot dream. Dreaming is considered an essential part of life and healing.” The conclusion to this paper, written by James D. Adams at the University of Southern California, says this: “The sedative, antianxiety and dreaming effects of mugwort should be tested in clinical trials. Medicine frequently neglects dreaming as an essential part of healing.” When it comes time to harvest, make sure you are creating a good relationship with the herb. Here is my dear friend Art to show you a way to ask for permission before harvesting. Offering tobacco is traditional, but if you do not have access to it, a coin, strand of hair, water from your head, cornmeal, or even chocolate (if there are no dogs in the area) can make a good gift. The point is to stay in reciprocity with the earth and give something of value in return. “All things enjoy ecstatic union with nature. Life without ecstasy is not true life and not worth living. Without ecstasy the soul becomes shriveled and perverted, the mind becomes corrupt and the body suffers pain. Ecstatic union with nature is necessary for normal health. It is normal for survival.” ​ - Eliot Cowan, Plant Spirit Medicine. Page 29. Learn About Herbs and Immunity Sources: Art Cisneros, Chumash Elder. Cecilia Garcia and James David Adams, Jr. Healing with Medicinal Plants of the West : Cultural and Scientific Basis for their Use . Abedus Press, 2009. Print. h ttps:// Eliot Cowan. Plant Spirit Medicine . Sounds True, 2014. Print. Judith Berger. Herbal Rituals: Recipes for Everyday Living . St. Martin's Griffin, 1999. Print.

  • Cultivating Communities | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects CULTIVATING COMMUNITIES 1/1 Explore Our Projects About Cultivating Communities Welcome to Cultivating Communities! This site is for students and community members to learn more about the fascinating environment that we now know as UCSB and Isla Vista. By learning more about this place, its fascinating history and possibilities for engaging with nature, we hope to facilitate deeper forms of engagement with the environment. Check out the visual timeline below of UCSB from 1928 to 2015 to begin your journey into understanding our very own cultural landscape. This site is the product of UCSB students working with Anthropology and Environmental Studies Professor Jeffrey Hoelle. Learn More 1928 1938 2015 1928 1/10 "A Decade-by-Decade View of UCSB Campus:" 1928-2015 Special Research Collections, UCSB Library, University of California Santa Barbara 1938 1956 1971 1994 2007 1928 1947 1961 1980 2001 Contact Us We will be in touch as soon as possible! Submit

  • Ethnobotany Classes | Hoelle Lab

    Home Database Maps Guidelines Engaging Ebot IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT DIY: Ethnobotany Classes Are you an educator? Do you want to teach your students or participants about ethnobotany, but don't know where to start? Here are a couple samples of classes that Kirsten has taught over the last couple years. We encourage you to use the teaching materials that follow, either for your own classes or to supplement your own knowledge! Please just remember to give Kirsten Cook credit where it’s due. Table of Contents: Chumash Ethnobotany How to Identify Plants Ethnobotany Lesson Plans Chumash Ethnobotany For UCSB Adventure Programs, I have been helping them move programming online since March 2020, during COVID-19. One of the many Nature Awareness and Eco-Adventure workshops I taught was on Chumash Ethnobotany. Check out the recording and the slideshow I created. Chumash Ethnobotany How to Identify Plants For UCSB Adventure Programs, I have been helping them move programming online since March 2020, during COVID-19. One of the many Nature Awareness and Eco-Adventure workshops I taught was on How to Identify Plants. Check out the recording and the slideshow I created. How to Identify Plants Ethnobotany Lesson Plans For a two-quarter-long Environmental Education class (taught by Briget Lewin) I created and taught a five-lesson non-formal Ethnobotany/Nature Connection unit. This was the most amazing class I have ever taken and the biggest learning experience of my entire life. ​ A takeaway from my teaching philosophy which might help you understand why I undertook such a project: “My personal educational passion is nature connection, which helps create a lifelong loving attitude towards the outdoors and forms a basis for later environmental education and advocacy to take root. I believe that nature connection must come before advocacy because without that love, learning about environmental problems leaves students feeling hopeless instead of invigorated and ready to take action.” ​ “The objective of this unit is to facilitate nature connection through development of relationships with local flora in order to create a healthier baseline for later environmental education and advocacy. This will involve hands-on experience with ethnobotanical uses of plants by learning about hazards, identification techniques, eating and preparing food, and making crafts. All lessons will circle back to the Native American necessity for connection with nature.” View Full Lesson Plan Ethnobotany Lesson: Snacks Instructor: Kirsten Cook; should be experienced in plant identification, especially local flora ​ Audience: People interested in and excited about the natural world ​ Overview: This lesson will focus on the identification and collection of edible plants that can be eaten raw. We will demonstrate how we can snack for free while in a hurry on the way to class or while hiking on the trail. We will strengthen our connection to nature with the knowledge that even if we are lost in the wilds, we can feed ourselves. We will discuss how native peoples used and collected these plants easily while on the move. ​ Goals and Objectives: Cognitive Objectives After lecture on identification of common local edible plants, participants should be able to correctly name and identify said plants. This will be assessed in the written questions at the end of the lesson. After discussion of edible plant identification, participants should be able to appraise a nearby location and indicate which plants are edible. This will be assessed via the ‘tree tag’ game in which they may be ‘it’ if they cannot find the correct plant. Affective Objectives After gathering and eating wild and ornamental plants, participants should feel more comfortable considering weeds and landscaping as viable food options. This will be assessed by asking them in the assessment at the end how they felt about eating the landscaping at the beginning versus the end of the lesson. ​ Materials: Camera Sign in sheet Binder paper for participants to write assessment answers on Pens/pencils Collection of plants for the pattern recognition game (from SSMS courtyard) ​ Management and Safety Considerations: Approximately a 2 hour class. Between 5 and 10 participants per instructor. Less participants to each instructor is better. Should be located somewhere outdoors that is relevant to all of their lives (their school campus or parks in their neighborhood) with a lot of open space and many different kinds of edible plants, both wild and ornamental. Place should be chosen with only manageable, common hazards so you do not have to worry too much about safety issues. Procedure: ​ East ( ˜5 minutes + 3mins/person) Meet at the pond in Storke Tower Pond and wait 5 minutes for late comers to show up before introducing the lesson. Have everyone write their name and email on the sign in sheet as they arrive. Introduce yourself and the lesson. Today’s lesson is all about edible plants! Specifically ones that we can find on campus and eat directly without preparation. I want to help you all be more comfortable with the action of picking plants as snacks. This lesson also addresses two important topics: food insecurity and eating locally. Can anyone tell me what those two topics mean to you and why we should address them as a society? Food insecurity is a major problem even here in Santa Barbara. Over 42% of students report experiencing some level of concern over food due to lack of funds, from low nutrition to skipping meals. Knowing how to eat plants around us that are free is a step in the right direction to helping reduce hunger. Eating locally is an environmental movement to reduce energy use in food production, keep money in the local economy, and support small scale farms and gardens. This is because if your food comes from our local small farm Fairview Gardens in Goleta instead of some massive plantation in Chile, we save hundreds of thousands of gallons of fuel. We are going to do some introductions to start off so that any stragglers can catch up. Let’s go in a circle and share our names, pronouns, something you are feeling grateful for this morning, and what you would think if you saw someone pick and eat a handful of those fruits over there. Now, again in a circle: if you could be any type of edible plant (fruit, vegetable, grain, etc.), what would you be and why? I want you to try to find a plant that describes you as a person, or maybe how you want to be viewed. Try to get them really thinking about the plant they chose. “That fruit has a really hard pit in the middle. Do you feel that you have inner strength?” “How do you think that the spiky skin emulates you?” “Can I infer that the gooey insides mean you are an emotional person?” “Is the color of the fruit related to how you associate yourself with the plant?” Make sure you also participate in the circle share. Before we start moving, I want to show you all something really cool that the school is doing. Remember those fruits that a person was hypothetically eating? They’re from the Edible Campus Project. The group is planting edible plants in an effort to address food insecurity. Show them the tangerine trees Right here in Storke Plaza they have seven potted tangerine trees. I’ve discovered a bunch of other fruit trees as well: several types of Loquats and Guavas, Strawberry Trees, Natal Plums, and Pomegranates. I’m sure there are more or there soon will be! Southeast ( ˜3 minutes) Begin walking towards the bridge to nowhere. Introduce some excitement by telling a story relevant to foraging while on the move. We are going to start walking now because we have a lot of ground to cover. I want to bring the relevance of this lesson to your own life and to the lives of native people that came before us. Knowing about edible flora is a really great way to get a snack or even a whole meal when you are in a hurry. On your way to class you can pick and eat some fruit so you aren’t thinking about how hungry you are instead of listening to your professor. Similarly, native people had such a deep understanding of the natural world around them that as they moved between collecting water, hunting, and migrating, they could gather plants to eat on the spot or to save for later meals. A rather impressive example is a story that has survived to today. Way back in the beginnings of this country, white Europeans were colonizing and expanding across the landmass to seek manifest destiny. Standing in their way were the original inhabitants of the land, Native Americans. We all know a little bit about the devastation wrought by colonizers on the native peoples and obviously there was opposition between the two: one sought to protect the land they worshipped and one sought to develop and ‘civilize’ that land. This is a story of one of those instances of opposition. The United States military was charged with bringing in a group of Apache men in order to move them to a reservation. The Apache were on foot, walking through the wilderness with only the clothes on their backs, whereas the military men were trotting on horseback with caravans of supplies. The military men would move at a fast pace throughout the day and then settle down by their cook fires at night for a hot meal and good sleep in their tents. And yet, even though they had the advantage of horses, they were always a day or two behind the tribe. The Apache, although on foot, stayed ahead of the military for months because they were able to eat what they foraged as they walked, and they never needed to stop to cook. They could eat handfuls of blackberries, or stoop to collect the tubers of Indian Potatoes and nibble until they were full. They never had to set up camp because there was no need to cook anything, they would just sleep under the stars. In the end, the Apache were brought in because the military captured their wives and children that had been hiding separate from the traveling men. South (˜25 minutes) Something important to think about is how watering with reclaimed water affects us as foragers. As the plant grows taking in the water, it filters out any contaminants, so the fruits and leaves are safe to eat. There is the possibility, though, that if the sprinklers get the leaves and fruits wet, they aren’t clean. Basically try to avoid eating plants that have had direct contact with reclaimed water, but don’t worry if they are watered at the roots. Make sure to offer each of the plants to everyone to try! Ask them to take a look, smell, feel and taste and try to describe the plants as well as possible. Then point out other things they should look for in identification. I call this place the Bridge to Nowhere! In amongst all of this acacia, is Black Mustard and Sour Grass. They are both spring herbs, but Mustard tends to last longer. This is Black Mustard. Can you tell me what you notice about it? Use all your senses! Look, touch, smell, taste. It is identifiable by its yellow clusters of 4 petalled flowers on tall straight stems, seed pods, unevenly toothed and deeply lobed leaves that get quite large as the plant grows. The plant is invasive and is seen up and down California, usually in the front country. It tastes kind of bitter and spicy. You can eat the flowers and immature leaves. The older they, are the more bitter. What stands out to you about sour grass? It is identifiable by its low to the ground clumps of clover/heart-shaped green leaves that may have brownish patterns on them, yellow 5-petalled trumpet-like flowers in groups at the top of unbranched stems, and their distinctive sour taste. Most of these ones here are dead from too much sun exposure. You can eat the leaves, flowers, and and stems. Walk down to the parking lot This here is a Loquat. Each fruit has between 2 and 8 seeds. Loquats are tropical and sweet, fuzzy, and yellow to orange in color. If the fruit pops off with little effort, it’s ripe. The leaves are evergreen, about 10 inches long, leathery, deeply veined, simple and oblong. Make sure to offer each of the plants to everyone to try! Ask them to take a look, smell, feel and taste and try to describe the plants as well as possible. Then point out other things they should look for in identification. Walk up the stairs towards the Thunderdome. This tree is a Strawberry Tree, no relation to strawberries but in the same family as Manzanitas and Madrones. You can see the red, cool, peeling bark. The flowers are like little pink bells that are slightly larger than their white counterparts in Manzanitas. The leaves are 2 inches long, oblong and toothed. The fruits are green to yellow to orange to red and are ripe when they are deepest red and pop off easily. The fruits are sweet but have a very strange, bumpy texture that is a little odd on the tongue. These spiky shrubs are Natal Plums. Oddly enough, landscapers decided putting plants with inch-long, poisonous thorns along the bike paths was a good idea. Shiny, deep green leaves. The flowers are snowy white. The fruits have small edible seeds and taste absolutely disgusting when unripe. You want it to be a little soft and dark red or almost purple; they should pull off easily. When the skin is broken the fruit oozes a white fluid called latex; this is something to avoid if you have a latex allergy. Interestingly, on campus there are short and tall natal plums in shrub and tree form! Walk to the drainage/field between the pool and CAPS This is Mallow. It grows almost everywhere, especially areas of compacted or disturbed earth. Its leaves are anywhere from the size of a penny to bigger than your face, fuzzy, have 6 to 8 soft, rounded lobes, are deep green and a little crinkled, and the veins all start from the central point of the stem. The flowers are small, purple, pink or white with 5 petals and grow from the axil where stems come together. They have seeds that look like tiny green pumpkins or sectioned cheese wheels. They usually grow close to the ground but can get up to 7 feet high depending on the type. The flavor of the leaves and seeds is kind of bland, and the furry texture turns a little slimy in your mouth. This one is Pickleweed or Glasswort. It tends to grow in sloughs with briny water where the ocean mixes with freshwater. That’s why it’s salty to the taste. Identification is easy: thin, long rounded oblong succulent green to reddish leaves that branch a lot. Dandelion, I’m sure you’ve all heard of. The flowers are yellow and alone on unbranched, hollow stalks. Seed stalks are fluffy and white. Leaves are deeply lobed with no bumps or hair and are usually basaly situated. Young leaves and flowers are edible but dandelions are called bitters for a reason. They have a lot of look alikes, most of which are edible. Show them any other edible plants present to prepare for the game These are vetch, fennel, oak, stork’s bill, pineapple weed! ​ Southwest (˜15+ minutes) As a formative assessment to see what they have learned about identifying edible plants, play ‘tree tag’. Set boundaries that make sense for the number of people and fitness level of the group Alrighty, now is your chance to prove that you learned something today! The name of the game is Plant Tag. Basically: one of you is ‘it’ and trying to tag everyone else. The rest of you are trying to not get tagged. I will name a plant that we talked about that will be safety or ‘base’ until I yell another plant name. If you are touching that plant, you can’t be tagged; don’t step on the plant or pick it though, you have to have a hand on it and it must be clearly visible. If you get tagged, you are also ‘it’. The game continues until everyone is ‘it’. The last person to get tagged starts the next game as ‘it’. You can also play a chaos tag version: everyone is it and trying to tag everyone else; if tagged they sit out until the person who tagged them gets out, then they’re back in; they can only win if they tag everyone else out. Still have protective bases that you change constantly to keep them on their toes and so they cannot stay on base the whole time. Plants to name: Mallow, Fennel, Oak, Vetch, Dandelion, Pickleweed, Stork’s Bill, Pineapple Weed Play until they get bored or until you are nearing the end of the class time. West (˜15 minutes) Walk to SSMS Courtyard This game is to end with some community and teamwork. This next game is all about remembering. I will give you 30 seconds to memorize the pattern and type of plants I set out before you. Then you will get 5 minutes to work together to replicate the pattern from memory. All the plants I used can be found nearby in the courtyard. You all take a moment between yourselves to talk about strategy while I prepare the activity. Prepare plant pattern (nasturtium, jacaranda, jasmine, grass, dandelion look alikes) Alrighty come take a look for 30 seconds. Now go try to find the plants I used and remake the pattern. Are you sure that’s right? Here’s another 30 seconds to memorize, now make final touches! Northwest (˜5 minutes) Do you trust me? Everyone close your eyes. I have one final treat for you. I am going to place an edible plant in your hand. Don’t look! What does it feel like? What does it smell like? What does it taste like? Open your eyes! These are nasturtium! They are edible flowers with a very distinctive taste that is akin to peppery mustard. Flowers are yellow or orange or red and interestingly shaped. Leaves are broad, round and flat, with veins radiating out from a central point. They usually grow as vines and ground cover. ​ North (˜5 minutes + 2 mins/person) Ask everyone to write down their answers to the assessment questions in preparation for discussion. Pass out the assessment papers. Alright y’all. Take a moment to think on what you did and learned this morning. Please write down your answers to these questions; the more detailed the better because this is partially how my teacher assesses how I have done. Once you’re done, we’ll share with each other what we learned. Please do write down your answers so that I can get the assessments back after the class. Write on whiteboard: feelings at start, feelings now, plants in the past Can you all share your answers to the first 3 questions? How did you feel at the beginning of the class? Did that feeling change? Have you encountered any of these plants in the past? Northeast (˜2 minutes) Collect the assessments Thank you all so much for coming, it means so much. I really hope you learned something that you will take with you as you wander the world. If you want to learn more about edible and useful plants, check out the Isla Vista Ethnobotany website! It’s linked to the UCSB Anthropology Department. Next lesson is this coming Monday the 21st 3-5pm at Sueño Orchard. We will be preparing or cooking a meal from plants we collect! ​ Assessment: At the beginning of the class, how did you feel about picking random plants to eat? Do you feel any different now at the end of the lesson about eating the landscaping? Think back to the plants we talked about. Have you noticed any of them before today? Which ones? Where? Name as many types of edible plants as you can remember from the class. Choose 2 plants we talked about. How would you describe them? What did you enjoy about the lesson? What would you recommend to make the lesson better? Is there a topic that you wish we had spent more time on? Less? Why? If you came to more than one of my lessons, how did this lesson compare to the other one(s) you attended? Ethnobotany Lesson: Meals Instructor: Kirsten Cook; should be experienced in plant identification, especially local flora ​ Audience: People interested in and excited about the natural world ​ Overview: We will make a dish or two to show how wild edibles can be used to make a delicious and nutritious meal. We will discuss local natives’ staple crops and how they sustainably gathered, cultivated and prepared the food they needed to survive. ​ Goals and Objectives: Cognitive Objectives Participants will be able to collaborate to find the plants needed to make the meal. This will be assessed as they search for their plants. Participants should be able to deduce where their plants generally grow, given experience in finding their plant. This will be assessed in the discussion questions. Students should be able to recall basic descriptive factors of their plant after having been given the plant and its written description. This will be assessed as they forage and in the written questionnaire at the end. Students should develop an understanding of how to sustainably forage. This will be assessed as they forage and in the written questionnaire. Affective Objectives Participants should undergo a growth in confidence as they identify their plant with more and more ease. This will be assessed as they collect plants. ​ Materials: Camera Papers and pens for them to answer questionnaire Sign in sheet Print out assessment questions To cook the meal: Olive Oil Garlic Salt Pot & Pan Lighter, Fuel and Stove Plates & Cups & Forks In collecting bowls (one bowl per person/pair) Print and cut out descriptions of the plants to collect On the back write the best location to find each plant Pre-collected plants for examples of what to collect (one type in each bowl) Dandelion (leaves and flowers) Black Mustard (leaves and seeds and flowers) Mallow (leaves and seeds and flowers) Wild Radish (seed-pods and leaves and flowers) Nasturtium (leaves and flowers) Hummingbird Sage (leaves and flowers) Sour Grass (stems and flowers) Lemonade Berry (berries) ​ Management and Safety Considerations: Approximately a 2 hour class. Between 5 and 10 participants per instructor. Less participants to each instructor is better. Should be located somewhere outdoors that is relevant to all of their lives (their school campus or parks in their neighborhood) with many different kinds of edible plants, both wild and ornamental. Place should be chosen so that only manageable, common hazards are nearby. The point is to not have to worry about hazards. ​ Procedure: ​ East (˜10 minutes) Pass around sign in sheet We are here today to cook some hopefully yummy food from plants we can harvest right here in our backyard. Last class we walked around campus and ate plants raw, which is cool and all, but there is something inherently more palatable about a hot meal. We will be making a traditional Chumash pine needle tea and stir fry for a snack! I chose this place to meet because it is honestly so amazing. Most of the plants here are edible! Some are growing wild, like the mallow and wild radish. But most of them are planted, like these rows of fruit trees! The apples, nectarines, peaches, and kumquats actually have fruit right now, although none of them are ripe yet. Let’s go in a circle and introduce ourselves. Please share your name, pronouns and something you are feeling especially grateful for today. Southeast (˜10 minutes) There are some ground rules for harvesting plants. We need to be sustainable in our picking. Our ancestors, people like the native Chumash, realized this. To survive, they knew they needed to protect the plants they ate for the next season so that they would still have food to eat in the future. Occasionally they would even cultivate the plants that they particularly enjoyed eating, such as oak trees, red maid, and types of Indian potato. They would do controlled burns, clear dead branches and brush, and sew seeds to support desirable plant populations. Although we personally do not need to forage to survive, it is still important for us to do so sustainably so that we are not decimating local ecosystems or ruining the landscaping. Never take more than ⅓ of the specific plant or the population of that plant. Never harvest from small, lone plants or plants that are obviously hurting (ones with holes, fungus, etc). Hand everyone a collecting bowl with the example and descriptions of their plant that they will collect for the meal. Have them pair up if miraculously a lot of people come. This is the plant you will be in charge of collecting for our meal. There is a description of the plant and the parts that I want you to collect. On the back are the locations on our path I have seen the plant before. Of course you can work together, but I want everyone to learn about their own plant specifically. Take a moment to read over the description and study the specimen. Can you point out all of the identifying factors of the plant? Are there any parts you can’t identify? Take a bite if you want. South (˜30 minutes) We are going to walk as a group from the Sueño Orchard through Tipi Village, and end in Estero Park. All of the plants you have been assigned should be on the way, so please be on the lookout! As you harvest your plant, if you aren’t sure if you have the correct one, ask someone else in the group to help you out. Come to me if both of you are unsure. Begin with a wander through the orchard. Ask questions about plants without giving away what they are until the participants figure it out or none of them can collectively figure it out. Make sure to advise them against unsustainable foraging. “Why wouldn’t you want to take this plant?” “What makes this plant better to eat than that one over there?” Once everyone has collected their assigned plant, find a place to set up camp that won’t be a problem with an open flame (the dirt patch under the tree arch). Southwest (˜5 minutes) We are now going to take a moment to stretch out while we wait for the food to cook. We will be doing a sun salutation that I have adapted a little bit; I call it plant yoga. Please humor me, I got the idea from two different friends so it can’t be that bad. It will be way better barefoot in the grass. Take off your shoes. Everyone close your eyes. Breath in deeply through your nose...then out through your mouth...In through your nose...out through your mouth...Keep breathing slowly in and out while I talk. Imagine for a moment that you are a plant...Imagine your broad they open up to the sunlight in the morning to create energy through photosynthesis...Imagine how you need rain for your seeds to sprout...The minerals in the soil make your stems grow strong...Reach into the ground...Feel the ground with your roots...Feel as your flowers follow the sun as it crosses the sky every day... Breath in through your nose...out through your mouth...In through your nose...out through your mouth...Now open your eyes, keeping in mind that you are still a plant. Inhale as you bring your hands together at your chest as though you are praying. Continue inhaling as you reach towards the sky. Feel the sunlight. Exhale as you slowly bend at the hips to reach towards the ground. With slightly bent knees, run your hands over the soil. Inhale as you bring your right foot forward into a lunge, then place your hands flat on the ground and bring your left leg back to meet your right in a plank position. Exhale as you lower your body to touch the ground. Inhale the smell of the earth and plants below you as you arch your upper body and look up at the sky. Exhale and push your tailbone into the air while staring at the ground. Inhale as you step forward with your left foot into a lunge. Exhale as you bring your feet together, bent at the waist and reaching for your toes. Inhale as you stand up to your full height and reach for the sun once more. Exhale and bring your hands back together at the center of your chest. Breath in deeply through your nose...then out through your mouth... ​ West (˜20 minutes) Make sure to start with the tea so it has longer to steep. We are going to make a traditional Chumash pine needle tea and a stir fry. The Chumash traditionally drank pine needle tea as a very effective way to get Vitamin C. Native Americans introduced it to European settlers suffering from scurvy. It also has many other traditional medicinal uses and health benefits such as alleviating joint pain, kidney flushing and helping coughs and respiratory infections. Avoid using toxic pines such as Ponderosa, Yew and Norfolk Island Pine. Avoid drinking if thought to be pregnant. The stir fry is just an experimental combination of edible plants. Let’s hope it tastes good! Who wants to help with which? For the tea, cut up or crush the pine needles. Soak them in boiled water for as long as possible. They are very powerfully flavorful when fresh. IF YOU ARE PREGNANT DO NOT DRINK. Drink. For the stir fry, heat up the oil in the pan. Throw in the leaves and seed pods of the nasturtium, wild radish, black mustard, dandelions, and mallow. Sprinkle with garlic salt. When cooked, garnish with flowers and serve. EAT! Now the moment you have all been waiting for: it is time to eat what we have made! This can be a time for casual chatting. It can also be made into a discussion about relevant topics; whatever works best for the group. Northwest (˜7 minutes) Hand out assessment questions and paper and pens If y’all don’t mind staying a bit longer, please write out your answers to these questions. I’d like to see what you learned and how I did, so the more information you can give me, the better! We will discuss some of them after you are done. North ˜2 minutes/person Alright, looks like everyone is about finished. We are going to go in a circle again and answer a couple questions. Think back to all of the places where you found your plant today; what types of places would you expect to find it in the future and why? What is your most important takeaway from this gathering? Northeast ˜2 minutes Collect assessments. Make sure everyone signed in. Thank you all so much for coming! It means so much that I get to share such an important part of my life with other people. My next and last lesson is this Wednesday 5-7pm at Pelican Park on DP. We are going to be making woven crafts out of flax and tule, emulating how Native Americans could have made rope, clothing and baskets. ​ Assessment: What plant were you assigned to collect? Describe it with at least 3 out of your 5 senses. Have you ever noticed your plant before? Where did you usually encounter it? Where would you expect to encounter your plant in the future? Why? How does a person ‘sustainably forage’? What shouldn’t you do if you are trying to ‘sustainably forage’? What did you enjoy about the lesson? What would you recommend to make the lesson better? Is there a topic that you wish we had spent more time on? Less? Why? If you came to more than one of my lessons, how did this lesson compare to the other one(s) you attended? Ethnobotany Lesson Plans

  • Isla Vista Traces | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects Cultural Byproducts and Imagining in Human-Environmental Interactions By Delcia Orona This collection aims to capture a glimpse of the traces present in Isla Vista, on the UC Santa Barbara campus, and general surrounding area. With this collection, we can begin to recognize the commonly unseen or forgotten, and reimagine our influence on the environment. We can imagine an experience of a person in the environment, and imagine a history present at that space or location. We can explore the historic and imaginary possibilities of the means by which the trace came to be, as a ‘cultural byproduct’ of our existence in the world. These photos allow for personal exploration, discovery, and imagination, and hopefully inspire a sense of wonder, curiosity, or encourage rethinking our material surroundings. With practice, we can begin to practice “mindful looking”, and see the intrinsic value in the traces we often leave out of artistic, cultural, and academic spaces. Click Image to View Description What is a trace? “An indication or evidence of the presence or existence of something, or of a former event or condition; a sign, mark” (Reimer 2010). (34.4138497, -119.8582814) “. . . traces help us to explore the materiality - not only in the narratives - that resides at the intersection of the seen and unseen - sound and silence - the coming into being of the social and its recession . . .” (Napolitano 2015). (34.4091594, -119.8675078) Click Image to View Description Click Image to View Description Where are they found? Traces are found just about anywhere that humans have been - the most simple being through a footprint. We leave something behind everywhere we go. (34.4124620, -119.8478704) What do they mean? They have a number of meanings, while also meaning nothing at all. They are open to interpretation. They live a life of their own, existing and disappearing, changing over time. They indicate an experience, a history, and a presence in the environment. Each trace is unique in its meaning. (34.4091831, -119.8671276) Click Image to View Description Click Image to View Description Are they intentional? Not necessarily; they are neither intentional or unintentional. We are leaving traces every time we interact with the material world, and we are often unaware of doing so. (34.4140038, -119.8661982) Are they harmful? In this context, no. Many harmful traces have been recognized, and we tend to be conscious of harmful traces (i.e. the impact of tracts in a preserved area). However, sometimes we forget the future life that they may have, so it is always worth being conscious of our traces. (34.4135164, -119.8680738) Click Image to View Description Click Image to View Description Do they ever go away? Some do, and some don’t. Some have been around for a number of years, some maybe even made by the photographer. Some must be maintained by interaction, others washed away by interaction. Their existence tells a story (34.4093394, -119.8666606) Histories When seeing these traces, we can recognize that what is left behind is telling a story “underneath the surface” of what appears. We can ask: what happened here? (34.4123085, -119.8489191) Click Image to View Description Click Image to View Description Cultural byproducts A cultural byproduct can be understood as something ‘leftover’ from culture; something that has occurred or materially manifested from our presence in our environment. However, unlike other material products of culture, a byproduct can be seen as what has happened ‘in between’, with no necessary intentionality but unpredicted in its existence. (34.4202438, -119.8585506) Imagining Because the past life of this trace is not or may not be fully known, that allows the viewer an imagining of a past presence in this space, and an imagining of an experience. Because of that, imagining can also be an empathetic practice. (34.4140234, -119.8668936) Click Image to View Description Click Image to View Description Seeing Often times, these marks are ‘looked over’ or simply not recognized in our day-to-day lives. By highlighting them, we can learn to analyze the intrinsic value of these traces and cultural byproducts all around us as having a rich history, life, and presence in our environment, and learn to continue ‘investigating’ our environment in this same analytical way. (34.4118767, -119.8487243) Being present in our environment ‘Seeing’ and understanding our environment acts as an almost meditative practice. It allows us to explore our own individual presence in our environment in new ways, as if reimagining our influence in the environment, and how it is intrinsically undetachable from us. (34.4126476, -119.8484209) Click Image to View Description Explore these tools to learn more about how you can identify, interact with, and evaluate the traces you encounter in your environment. "The Visual Toolkit" The "Art of Seeing" Thick Description View Interactive Map Meet the Artist: Delcia Orona Delcia is anthropology major and linguistics minor at the University of California, Santa Barbara. She is originally from Parachute, Colorado, and hopes to attend graduate school in Europe for anthropology and sociology, or contemporary art and curatorial studies. Current Projects Seniors honors thesis: “Food politics and ethnography: oral histories and ‘story-telling’ in building a picture of local food networks in rural Colorado communities” SOC130A: “A Day in the Life of an IV Student (ft. Sustainable Food Practices) View her Work: DO

  • News Archive | Hoelle Lab

    News Archive February 9-August 31, 2018 Garimpeiros: The Wildcat Miners of Amazon Rainforest Curators: Jeffrey Hoelle and Jonathan Rissmeyer, UCSB Library Senior Artist. Public Exhibition at the Ocean Gallery of the UCSB Davidson Library. December 13, 2016 Gold Fever in the Forest UCSB Current press release on Sapiens article, "Gold Glimmers in the Amazon." November 1, 2017 From Contested to Green Frontiers in Amazonia University of Florida, Center for Latin American Studies press release. February 20, 2018 The Brazilian Cash Cow UCSB Sustainability Living Lab July 6, 2018 Digging Deeper UCSB Current press release on "Garimpeiros" exhibition September 1, 2016 UCSB Public Affairs and Communications News Release for "Rainforest Cowboys" September, 2015 News Coverage of Public Lectures in San Angelo, Texas Fort Concho Students Learn About Life in the Amazon , September 16, 2015 San Angelo Native to Speak on Cowboys and the Amazon (San Angelo Standard Times) , September 10, 2015 Former Resident to Discuss New Book (San Angelo Standard Times) , September 6, 2015 "Postcards from the Amazon" Professor Returns to San Angelo (SA Standard Times) September 9, 2015 2015-2016 Publicity for Academic Lectures in the United States by Professor Hoelle Angelo State University , September 14, 2015 University of Texas at Austin Geography & Environment Colloquium , September 18, 2015 University of Texas -San Antonio Anthropology Fall Lecture Series, September 21, 2015 Southwestern University, September 22, 2015 University of Florida, October 9, 2015 UC Berkeley Geography Colloquium, October 14, 2015 UC Santa Cruz Environmental Studies, November 2, 2015 San Diego State Geography, December 11, 2015 Brown University , February 24, 2016 Yale Agrarian Studies Colloquium , February, 2016 Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Presentation, May 2, 2016 April, 2016 Media coverage of The Conversation article May 31, 2016 Rainforest Cowboys LASA Book Prize Press Release and Announcements UCSB Public Affairs and Communications, News Release , "A Best Book" University of Texas Press Twitter announcement on book award #1 University of Texas Press Twitter announcement on book award #2 August, 2016 Publicity and Press Coverage of Lectures in Rio Branco, Acre and Belem, Para (Brazil) Federal University of Para (UFPA)

  • Database | Hoelle Lab

    Home Database Maps Guidelines Engaging Ebot Cultivating Communities IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT Plant Database Edible & Medicinal Plants Fascinating Flora BEFORE YOU FORAGE: Please enjoy educating your taste buds, but PLEASE DO NOT take any unnecessary risks if you are unsure about a plant and check out our Foraging Guidelines before you interact with any plants. In addition, many plants on this page are NOT edible, so please pay special attention to the map labels and descriptions below to determine which plants are edible and which ones are not. Edible and Medicinal Edible, Useful, & Medicinal Plants Welcome to our ever-growing database for edible, medicinal and useful plants found in Isla Vista! Enjoy educating your taste buds, but please do not take any unnecessary risks if you are unsure about a plant. When collecting edible plants be sure to use your own common sense and always check the listed information to ensure correct location and identification of edible plants. These plants are fed with reclaimed water, so be sure to wash what you collect before consumption! This page is constantly being added to, so keep an eye out for new additions! ​ Click on the icon of the plant you are interested in the table of contents to quickly learn more about its edible or medicinal uses, or scroll down to explore our long list of detailed plant entries. Table of Contents: Blackberry Bluedicks Chickweed Dandelion Fig Firethorn Ice Plant Kumquat Lavender Lemonadeberry Lemon Loquat Mallow Manzanita Miner's Lettuce Mugwort Nastertium Natal Plum Oregon Grape Pickleweed Pindo Palm Pineapple Guava Pineapple Weed Plantain Prickly Pear Cactus Rosemary Sage Sour Grass Strawberry Guava Strawberry Tree Wild Radish Blackberry Common Names: Blackberry Latin Name: Rubus sp. Spanish Name: Zarzamora There are 11 different species of wild blackberry in the state of California. Himalayan Blackberry (R. discolor), one of the more common and fruitful in California, exhibits five leaflets that are oval shaped and toothed. Thimbleberry blackberry (R. parviflorus) is the only one of the four weedy blackberries that is non-thorny and non-vining and has a simple leaf as opposed to multiple leaflets. Cutleaf blackberry (R. laciniatus) has five leaflets that are rounder and lobed. California blackberry (R. ursinus) has three leaflets. These brambles grow as vines and produce a sweet blackberry. Himalayan blackberry and Cutleaf blackberry are non-native weeds, whereas California blackberry and Thimbleberry are native, but are considered weeds in certain conditions. The best time of year to collect wild blackberries is in July and August, but plants will differ in the times that they are ripe. To harvest, simply pick the ripe blackberries off the plant, while being cautious of thorns. The plants can live upwards of 25 years, and the spread of their seeds is facilitated by the many animals that eat them. WARNINGS: Thorny Stems; Poison Oak can look similar to Wild Blackberry: it has three leaflets that are ovular and have lobed margins, and are shiny green in summer, turning shiny red in fall. To tell them apart, blackberry usually has thorns on the vines and fuzzy leaves, poison oak should have neither. ​ Location in IV/Campus: Various locations in open spaces; massive bush by the FT side of Santa Ynez housing; in the Camino Corto Open Space by the little bridge and spread through the trees ​ Recipes: Pie , Jam , Cobbler , Ice Cream Blackberry Bluedicks Common Names: Bluedicks, Blue Dick, Wild Hyacinth Latin Name: Dichelostemma capitatum The Bluedick is a native, spring perenial of the west coast of North America from Oregon to Baja, and as far east as Utah, that springs up from a edible bulb or corm. It can be found from sea level to 7000 feet throughout most of California, and commonly found in sunny, grassy places and after disturbances. The leaves are very long and narrow, and hug the tall, central stem of the single flower stalk that is tipped by a cluster of blue-purple flowers of six petals that meet in the white and yellow center. The leaves can smell onion-y when crushed. To harvest the corm, keep in mind you should wait until the plant has fully died back for the winter. The corms were a good source of starch in many indigenous diets, either raw, ground into flour, or cooked slowly for sweeter flavor; they were planted in wild gardens, dug up with digging sticks and were known to be eaten more often than acorns by some groups. The flowers are also edible. Gardeners say that these plants are relatively easy (in comparison to other CA bulb plants) to grow from bulb and seed if you want to start a native garden! WARNINGS: As this is a sparse native plant, be careful not to overharvest by taking only one or two bulbs out of any given patch. Location in IV/Campus: Bluedicks can be found in the wilder areas of Isla Vista and in the Los Padres National Forest to the North Bluedicks Chickweed Common Names: Chickweed Latin Name: Stellaria media Spanish Name: Pamplina For gardeners the world over, chickweed is unwanted and hard to get rid of, but to the avid forager, it’s a mild, tasty spring snack! This invasive Indo-European plant grows as a thick, sprawling ground cover in damp, mostly shady places, usually in areas that have been regularly disturbed by humans. The leaves are rounded tear drops, bright green and no bigger than the nails on your smaller fingers; these leaves grow in pairs that alternate (north-south pair on top of an east-west pair). The small white flowers have five deeply lobed petals that may appear to be ten very small petals. And most importantly, this plant has a very fine line of hairs down one side of the stems (IT MUST HAVE THE LINE OF HAIRS OR IT IS NOT CHICKWEED). You should also be able to gently pull the stem apart and the outer layer of the stem will separate while the inner layer should stretch out. Chickweed purportedly has vitamins A, B, C and D, the elements Ca, K, P, Zn, Mn, S, Cu, Fe, Si (it is comparable with spinach in nutrient content) and has been used in traditional medicine to help with inflammation , digestion, bad skin, and to restore those recovering from bad illnesses, amongst other uses. ​ WARNINGS: If the plant you’re looking at has red or orange flowers, OR seeps a milky white fluid, OR doesn’t have flowers, it is NOT the right plant--DO NOT EAT IT; Spurge and Scarlet Pimpernel are poisonous look-alikes. ​ Location in IV/Campus: these plants can be found in many places, especially where it is damp and where you can find other annual weeds ​ Recipes: Pesto, Salad, and dishes ; Salad and Pesto Chickweed Dandelion Common Names: Dandelion Latin Name: Taraxacum Officionale Spanish Name: Diente de león As a wild growing plant, it is considered a weed. Dandelion is in the sunflower family and has bright yellow flowers with many small petals (rosettes) or large white seed heads (blowballs or clocks) that develop on long, unbranchd, hollow stems. Its flat green leaves are jagged and develop directly from the root, growing almost parallel to the ground. It has a long white or brown taproot. The entire plant is edible but the flowers and young leaves are mainly eaten and have an earthy, slightly bitter flavor. Dandelion can act as a laxative and a diuretic and can detoxify the body. It is high in vitamins A, B, C, and D, minerals like calcium, iron, potassium, zinc and magnesium. Dandelion can bloom twice a year and are best from spring through fall. To collect, pull directly from the base where the leaves and stem meet the earth (if roots are desired), or pluck individual parts. ​ WARNINGS: Dandelion may be sprayed with herbicides. Make sure harvest areas are not contaminated and wash well. Dandelion also has lookalikes such as bristly oxtongue, sow thistle and prickly lettuce (most also edible), but precautions should be taken. ​ Location: Nearly anywhere: grass lawns, dirt patches, cultivated gardens, roadsides and areas that have not been recently mowed or weeded. ​ Recipes: Dandelion stirfry , other recipes , flowers can be made into a tea, roots can be made into coffee, flowers and leaves can be added to salads. Sautee or blanch leaves to remove bitterness. Dandelion Fig Common Names: Fig Latin Name: Ficus carica Spanish Name: Higo Common fig can be easily identified by its large dark green leaves, spanning 10 inches long and 5 inches wide, identified by its greenish, brownish or purplish pear shaped fruit of size 2-4 inches. Each leaf has a deeply lobed shape with between three and five lobes per leaf and are thick and leathery with smooth sides. The Common fig tree can grow up to thirty feet with smooth white bark and droop often as they grow. This tree is native to the Middle East and Mediterranean region. Interestingly, the Fig tree has it's very own symbiotic relationship with the Fig wasp (Agaonidae) who does most of the tree's pollination. Figs are highly nutritious fruits, containing vitamins such as A, E and K all of which aid with vision, skin and blood pressure, respectively. Figs are also high in fiber, which aid digestion and control blood sugar. Figs are great for snacking raw, smoothie bowls, and toppings for yogurt! WARNINGS: Fig fruit is safely edible, but fig leaves are not in high doses. Fig leaves are also generally advised to not rub on skin due its high latex content and milky sap. For this reason it is advised to rinse the fruit before ingesting. Not all figs are edible, weeping fig (Ficus benjamina), for instance; always make sure to ID the plant before ingesting. Location: CCBER gardens, Sueno Rd, Campus Green near Physical Sciences Building and Chemistry Building, North Hall courtyard Recipes: No-bake fig newton energy bites (vegan) , C aramelized figs with balsamic vinegar (vegan) Fig Firethorn Common Names: Firethorn Latin Name: Pyracantha coccinea Firethorn is a shrub that belongs to the family Rosaceae. It can group up to 10-15ft It is native to the area the covers Southwest Europe to Southeast Asia. When mature, the fruits are small, spherical, and red. The flowers on the Firethorn bloom from late spring to early summer. Berries are edible with an apple-like flavor, and best collected in late autumn. The berries are NOT edible without some processing. In Britain, Firethorn is an important source of nectar for bees during times when other plants are not blooming. ​ WARNINGS: The fruit on the Firethorn is only edible after it has been crushed and washed under running water. If eaten in large quantities, Firethorn fruit can cause stomach pain due to the fact that it is mildly poisonous. No other part of the Firethorn plant than the processed fruit should be eaten. Location on campus: Firethorn is located just inside the Western entrance to South Hall, and on the South side of Kerr Hall. ​ Recipes: Firethorn Jelly , Firethorn Sauce Firethorn Ice Plant Common Names: Ice Plant Latin Name: Carpobrotus edulis Spanish Name: Doca Iceplant is a robust perennial succulent shrub that is native to coastal South Africa. The plant is abundant and considered an invasive species on California’s Mediterranean coast in which it thrives. The plant grows in a thick and dense mat-like way. Its thick succulent stems grow horizontally and curve upwards. Flowers generally appear in late winter to spring and can be yellow, pink, and purple. The ice plant’s fruit appears once the flower dies back and is edible. The fruit is yellow and fleshy when ripe and resembles a fig or spinning top. Hypothetically, the flavor is salty and sour, mildly sweet when riper; a taste test showed us that the flavor is very bitter and an unpleasant aftertaste persists for some time. Early spring in California regions is the best time for collection. Simply pick the fleshy fruit (resembles a spinning top), it will be yellow in color when ripe and can be eaten fresh. The outer layer is astringent and is ideally removed before eating the more jelly-like interior, where the seeds are located. Ice plant was introduced in California during the early 1900s for coastal erosion mitigation; the plant still outcompetes many native coastal plants to this day. Ice plant can inhibit the natural movement processes of sand dune environments. In South Africa the ice plant’s fruit is sometimes referred to as a sour fig. ​ WARNINGS: Ice plant grows along bluffs and steep coastal cliffs, as well as all throughout IV. DO NOT harvest ice plant close to cliffs. ​ Location on campus: Campus point bluffs ​ Recipes: Fruit can be eaten fresh, Ice plant jam AKA Sour Fig Jam Ice Plant Kumquat Common Names: Kumquat, Gold Orange Latin Name: Fortunella The kumquat tree is shrubby and compact, standing between 8-15 ft tall. The branches are light green while the leaves are thin, dark green and glossy. Flowers can be white. The tree bears fruit, edible raw, that are oval-oblong or round that are about 1-1.5 inches wide. The peel is golden-yellow to red orange. The flesh can be " extremely mouth-puckeringly" sour, while the skin is not bitter and the seeds are also edible. The kumquat tree are believed to be native to China, since they were first mentioned in Chinese literature dating back to 1178 A.D. Overall, they are perfect for toppings on cereals, oatmeal, and they makes a great zest for salads, and have been used traditionally by Chinese and Vietnamese cultures to help colds and the flu. ​ WARNINGS: Just make sure to rinse fruit before ingesting whole! ​ Locations: Sueno Orchard and Phelps road off of Stroke Rd next to the Stroke Ranch ranch apartments Recipes: For colds and flu , Candying and Marmalade Kumquat Lavender Common Names: Lavender Latin Name: Lavandula Purple flower bush with small leaves and circular shape. Small circular shaped/pruned plant with individual stems that have both small purple flowers and small green leaves. The purple flowers taste distinctly floral are used as flavor, garnish, baking ingredient, perfume, house/drawer/clothing fragrance, etc. Collect the flowers by the stem, if for consumption remove the small purple flowers from the stem after harvesting. Thought to help cure insomnia when used in essential oil form for smelling purposes. Lavender is also used for other aroma therapeutic purposes. Lavender oil is also thought to increase hair growth when applied to the scalp. You can collect lavender and dry it for around two weeks for storage, use, or scent. Historically, lavender was used for bathing and scents. It is from the mint family. ​ WARNINGS: Consumption of lavender oil is toxic. Some individuals may be allergic to lavender. Can cause skin irritation in some individuals. ​ Location on campus: Right side of Student Resource Building in the direction of Pardall tunnel but farther behind the building. ​ Recipes: Lavender-Honey ice cream , Vanilla-lavender cake , Lavendar smoothie Lavender Lemonade Berry Common Names: Lemonade Berry Latin Name: Rhus integrifolia Small red/purple clusters of berries on large green-leaved bushes. Large green bushes with clusters of small purple/red berries and small pink/red flowers that have five petals. Berries are edible and taste like the tartest lemonade you never wanted to drink (think warheads level of citric acid). Their texture is strangely sticky. In spring, pick berries from cluster by hand and cleaned before consumption. Pick berries when dark red/orange. Both the berries and leaves can be used for thirst avoidance. Berries can be soaked in water to create a drink. The leaves and branches can be used to dye cloth. Relieves coughs and fevers. Tea from the leaves used to treat coughs. Ground seeds drink used to treat fever. The Chumash used to make a drink from the berries, hence the name. ​ WARNINGS: The bark produces sap that can be irritating to some individuals’ skin, similar to poison oak. ​ Location on campus: Near/around the lagoon ​ Recipes: Lemonadeberry juice, dried Lemonadeberries, Lemonadeberry syrup, Lemonadeberry jelly, Lemonadeberry jell candy , Sumac Lemonade Lemonade Berry Lemon Common Names: Meyer Lemon Latin Name: Citrus x meyeri Spanish Name: Limón There exist many different varieties of lemons that are edible. Thought to be a cross between the lemon (Citrus limon) and mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata), the Meyer lemon is a popular variety and has some unusual features. While light orange in color, the fruit has the distinct oblong shape of a lemon and is about 3 inches in length. Meyer lemons have a slightly sweeter taste than most lemons, but still more closely resemble lemons than oranges in taste. The tree can grow up to ten feet tall and produces fragrant white flowers. The leaves are shiny and dark green colored. The best time of year for lemons is generally in the fall and winter, but older trees may flower and produce fruit at almost all times of the year.3 Lemons can be used in a variety of foods and drinks for flavor, and the peel can be used as “lemon zest” for flavoring. Healthwise, lemons are a good source of vitamin C. ​ WARNINGS: THORNS; Lemon trees can have branches with thorns of various sizes. Use caution in order to avoid punctures and scratches. ​ Location in IV/Campus: The Urban Orchard in Storke Plaza, Sueno Orchard ​ Recipes: Lemon Desserts , Plethora of recipes of all types , Meyer lemon specific recipes , Meyer Lemonade , Meyer Lemon Bars Lemon Loquat Common Names: Loquat, Bronze Loquat Latin Name: Eriobotrya japonica, Eriobotrya japonica, Eriobotrya deflexa Spanish Name: Níspero The loquat tree is native to China and is widely planted as an ornamental plant in California . Loquats have been cultivated in Japan for over 1,000 years, and the country still produces the largest loquat crop in the world, annually producing around 17,000 tons of fruit! The evergreen, simple, oblong leaves of the tree are large, leathery, deeply veined and dark green. The loquat fruits grow in bunches in the tree and have 2 to 8 seeds. When mature, the fruit is velvety, oval-shaped, and yellow in color, and can be eaten raw. Fruit can range in size from marble to hacky-sack sized. To collect the Loquat, simply pick the fruit off of the tree. Flowers on the Loquat tree bloom in the fall and the tree generally fruits in early spring. Loquat fruits are high in fiber, antioxidants, vitamin a, vitamin c, potassium, and other beneficial minerals. The loquat leaf likewise has a range of health benefits, including blood sugar regulation and anti-inflammatory effects. Another variety of loquat is the Bronze Loquat; this tree produces smaller, darker colored fruit in fall, and is also edible. ​ WARNINGS: Seeds in the loquat fruit are poisonous and very large. When consuming the fruit raw, spit out or eat around the seeds. ​ Location in IV/Campus: South side of Broida Hall. Various locations in Isla Vista. Sueño dog park. Across the street from 7/11. ​ Recipes: Loquat Leaf Tea , Loquat Jelly , Loquat Pie , Loquat Chicken , Our Loquat and Brussel Sprout Salad Loquat Mallow Common Names: Mallow, Cheeseweed Latin Name: Malvaceae Spanish Name: Malva There are many different kinds of mallow growing wild in California, all considered weeds. Annual plants, they come up with the first rains of the season and begin to dig in a thick, woody taproot, allowing them to be seen year round. The fruits, although green and often wrinkled, look akin to small wheels of cheese or flat pumpkins because of their 10-12 wedge shaped sections; each section contains a seed. Leaves are slightly fuzzy and have 5 to 7 lobes, veins radiating from a central point, wavy shallow-toothed edges, and a crinkled appearance, as though someone balled up a piece of paper; they can be very small to broader than a human hand. Grows in a spreading manner, often low to the ground, although some species can exceed 5 feet in height. Flowers are very small; white, purple or pink in color; have 5 notched petals that may appear as 10 petals; grow where the leaves meet the stems. No poisonous look-alikes! Ground Ivy has similar leaves but flowers are very different. It is edible as well. Begin growing after first rain, but can be seen year round. Flower in spring. All parts of plant are edible: Leaves, flowers, stems and fruits/seeds. Soft and hairy at first touch, but a little slimy texture when chewed; very mild taste. The mucilaginous property (sliminess) of the plant makes them soothing for various types of inflammation. Can be used topically like aloevera and cactus by putting on sunburns and inflamed skin13.Can also eat them as a remedy for coughs and colds. Contains calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin C. Other plants in the same family are cotton, hibiscus and okra. The original ingredient of marshmallow, Althaea officinalis, is in the same family! Can accumulate nitrates at levels toxic to cattle. Used as a survival food during war or crop failure. Grows on 6 of the 7 continents. ​ WARNINGS: None! ​ Location: Any open space, disturbed earth, open field, dirt patches, agricultural areas. ​ Recipes: Used as salad greens and potherbs 8 , Marshmallow/whipped cream recipe , A bunch of quick recipe ideas , Mallow Fritters , Mallow Soup Mallow Manzanita Common Names: Manzanita Latin Name: Arctostaphylos spp. Spanish Name: Manzanita (little apple) The Manzanita is characterized by bark that is reddish to orange in color, waxy leaves, and gnarled trunks. They can grow as shrubs or small trees with a height ranging from a few feet tall to over twenty feet. The manzanita produces bell shaped flowers from winter to spring that range from white to pink. Manzanitas grow on dry coastal slopes and in canyons throughout South western North America. The berries and flowers of the manzanita can be eaten raw or cooked. The fruit can be eaten raw or cooked, but the raw fruit is dry and mealy. The fruit can be dried and crushed into powder and be used in soups, breads, and sprinkled on other dishes. The raw fruit can be crushed raw to make a cider. Native Americans would use the apple-like fruits to create meal and cider. ​ WARNINGS: Of the 60 Manzanita species, some of the manzanitas are protected, including the A. cruzensis, A. edmundsii, A. Luciana, A. pilosula, and A. refugioensis. Location in IV/Campus: Manzanita can be found in restoration areas and the Los Padres National Forest. ​ Recipes: Manzanita flower tea , Manzanita Punch Manzanita Miner's Lettuce Common Names: Miner's Lettuce, Miner's Green Latin Name: Claytonia perfoliata Miner’s lettuce is an herbaceous annual, low growing with many round, lily-pad-like leaves that surround the pinkish stems. Juvenile leaves start out pointier and in a very different shape than their succeeding stages. Several (or many) very small, white or pale pink flowers bloom in the center of that round leaf, each with five petals. This plant is native to North America and has naturalized in Britain. It is found in damp areas, mostly in the shade of disturbed ground or steep slopes. The leaves are great raw in a salad (along with the stems) or cooked, although beware their bitterness later in the season and it is slightly mucilaginous . Pick the plants in late winter and spring. Miner’s lettuce is very high in vitamin C, A and Fe, and is known to be a diuretic, minor laxative, and has been traditionally used to treat rheumatism . Use it to detox and help the lymphatic system. Fun fact: it’s pollinated by flies! It’s lovely name comes from its use by miners during the gold rush to prevent scurvy. They were also eaten by Native Americans. WARNINGS: none ​ Location in IV/Campus : These can be found growing in damp, unattended areas with other ‘weeds’ ​ Recipes: Salad Miner's Lettuce Mugwort Common Names: Mugwort Latin Name: Artemisia douglasiana Chumash Name: Molush Mugwort grows to be 7ft tall, but is usually about 4ft tall. The stalks are erect with few branches. The leaves are about four inches long, oblong and divided into at 1-7 lobes. Above the leaves are dark green. Below, the leaves are white from many hairs. Flowers are very small and are hidden by dense leaves. The plant leaves have a very pungent sage smell and bitter taste. Mugwort is found from Baja California to Washington and Idaho and tend grow in riparian corridors and can be found in dry or moist shaded areas and on a variety of soil types. Mugwort is a cleansing herb and highly medicinal with many uses: the leaves can be chewed on but spit out to relieve tooth pain, the leaves can also be used as a hand sanitizer by simply rubbing the hands together with the leaves. Culturally, mugwort leaves and stems are placed under a sleeping pillow to keep evil spirits away and promote good dreams, and have been burned as smudge sticks for energy cleansing. Some indigenous groups would rub their bodies with mugwort after someone died so they would not be haunted. Because dried mugwort is an amazing source of tinder, this plant was used to start fires and even cauterize wounds. Mugwort is best used as a tea for premenstrual, menopausal syndrome, hot flashes, and dysmenorrhea. Use only one leaf, do not add any sugar and drink only one mug a day. Crushed leaves can be rubbed directly onto the skin or made into a wash to prevent and clear up poison oak rashes. ​ WARNINGS: Mugwort contains many active compounds such as cineole, camphor, linalool and thujone which can induce convulsions and renal damage if ingested in large doses. The recommendation is to use a single leaf to avoid any harmful effect. They tend to grow, albeit conveniently, near toxic plants like poison oak. Mugwort should NOT be consumed by pregnant woman. Be aware: Ragweed is a look-alike that causes extreme cases of hay fever. Location: Camino Corto Open Space, the path from Commencement Lawn to Depressions Beach, Lagoon Island, campus restoration areas, grows wild often in wetter areas (look for creeks, ponds and seasonal washes/drainage) Recipes: Poison oak remedies , Lucid dreaming Mugwort Nasturtium Common Names: Nasturtium, Indian Cres Latin Name: Tropaeolaceae Majus Low ground cover or climbing vine plant; many branches from vines. Orange or red or yellow flowers; 5 petals. Pale to deep green, rounded, undulating cloud shaped leaves; 8 prominent veins per leaf coming out from a center point on the leaf towards edges. Leaves and Flowers (especially of young plants) are edible. Pungent, peppery, sharp “plant” flavor of leaves and flowers. Can bloom all year long. Flowers fade during extremely hot summers or cold winters. Gently pick or cut flowers and leaves from the main stems of the vine. Expectorant: helps clear mucus from lungs (cough remedy). Diuretic: increases production of urine. Aperient: purgative or laxative. Disinfectant. Contains isobutyl isothiocyanate, glycotropeoline, spilanthol, oxalic acid, vitamin C. The seeds of the Nasturtium plant were used as a substitute for pepper during World War II. Nasturtium means “nose twister” in Latin. This name refers to people’s reactions when they taste it. ​ WARNINGS: Nasturtium can cause skin irritation. Pregnant or breastfeeding women should not use this herb. People with kidney, stomach, or intestine problems should not use this herb. The medical community doesn’t recognize the benefits of this plant. Always consult a medicine practitioner before using herbs as medicine. ​ Location: Often in overgrown areas. Located on campus near Girvetz. Sueño Orchard. Seen in Isla Vista Neighborhood. ​ Recipes: Can be eaten straight off the plant or added to salad, Nasturtium Pesto ; Our Nasturtium Pesto ; Juice: cough remedy. Dried: powdered ripe buds can be used as a mild laxative. Flowers can be eaten for vitamin C, to help overcome and prevent the cold and flu. Compress/Topically: can be used on small cuts to prevent bacterial infections. Infusion: used for internal infections Nasturtium Natal Plum Common Names: Natal Plum Latin Name: Carissa macrocarpa The Natal Plum is a shrub that is a member of the family Apocynaceae. It is native to South Africa. When mature, the Natal Plum is oval shaped, and red in color. If the fruit is green, it means that it is not mature. The Natal Plum plant has white flowers, inch long, poisonous thorns and deep green leaves. In coastal areas with moderate climates, the shrub that carries the Natal Plum produces fruit year round. To collect the Natal Plum, one should gently pull the fruit directly off the shrub. The fruit is the only edible thing on the shrub that carries the Natal Plum; it is sweet and delicious if ripe, otherwise the after taste is quit unpleasant. The Natal Plum is a great source of Vitamin C. Vitamin C increases immunity, improves gum health, and provides many more general health benefits. To get the benefits of the Natal Plum, eat the fruit. Contains sufficient pectin and acid, facilitating the making of firm gels in jelly. The Natal Plum contains latex, which is used to make rubber. The Greek name for the Natal Plum translates to “keep away from the dog.” ​ WARNINGS: Make sure only to eat the fruit on the shrub; all other parts of the plant are poisonous except the fruit, including the stems and leaves. There are thorns on the shrub that carries the Natal Plum, so exercise caution when collecting the fruit. The plant also contains latex in the form of a milky fluid, which is a fairly common allergy so please proceed with caution. ​ Location on campus: The Natal Plum is located on the East side of the Thunder Dome, and bordering the bike racks by De La Guerra Dining Commons. ​ Recipes: Natal Plum jelly and pie. Can also be incorporated into fruit smoothies and blended drinks. Natal Plum Jam , Natal Plum Jelly/Jam ​ Interesting article from a natal plum enthusiast Natal Plum Oregon Grape Common Names: Oregon Grape, Holly-Leaved Barberry, Mountain Grape Latin Name: Mahonia aquifolium, Berberis aquifolium Spanish Name: Uva de Oregon Holly-Leaved Barberry, also known as the Oregon Grape and Mountain Grape, is an evergreen shrub native to western North America. Its flower is the state flower for the state of Oregon. The plant has dark green, holly shaped leaves, which can sometimes turn red to purple during winter. Its leaves are leathery and glossy, with sharp points resembling small teeth. In early spring, the plant produces clusters of yellow flowers that turn into dark purple/blue, dusty berries that resemble grapes, although it is not actually related to grapes. These berries are quite tart and leaf a bad taste in the mouth, but edible regardless. The shrub generally grows to be about 3-6 feet tall. Native Americans used the bark of the shrub to make yellow colored dye. ​ WARNINGS: Leaves resemble English holly leaves; English holly produces red berries that are toxic to humans. ​ Location in IV/Campus: Planter box in parking lot west of Bren Hall. By bike loop on the way to CCBER main offices ​ Recipes: Jelly Orgegon Grape Pickleweed Common Names: Pickleweed, Sea Asparagus, American Glasswort Latin Name: Salicornia pacifica Pickleweed is a low lying perennial that is located along both the west and east coasts of North America and parts of the Gulf of Mexico. It thrives in salty environments with little wave action, which includes shorelines, salt marshes, and tidal flats. Its green stems grow up to 1 meter and have a jointed and notably pickle-esque appearance. Flowering stems produce purple upright flowers. Can be picked year-round. More green during summer with some red hues in fall. The above ground parts of the plant are edible4 with a very salty taste. Simply pick the green stems off of the plant. The name glasswort comes from the plant’s use as soda ash for glass making in the 18th century. ​ WARNINGS: This plant is located at restoration sites for salt-marshes and wetlands, so be considerate of the fragile and managed environment when collecting. ​ Location on campus: Around Campus Lagoon ​ Recipes: Sauteed Pickleweed, Pickled Pickleweed, Various Salads Pickleweed Pindo Palm Common Names: Pindo Palm Latin Name: Butia capitata The Pindo Palm is a slow growing palm tree native to Brazil. It can reach heights of around twenty feet. It has a stout trunk leading up to a canopy of dull greyish to green fronds that curve towards the trunk. The fronds exhibit spikes on either side of the main stem structure. The fruit it produces is edible and grows in bunches in its canopy. The fruits are round and pebble-sized, can be yellow and orange-red, and fall to the ground when ripe. The flesh and skin surrounding the seed of the fruit is edible and has a sweet and tangy pineapple-tropical flavor; it is unique to most fruit you have probably tried. The flesh is very fibrey and juicy. The fruits are a good source of carotene and can be used to make jams, jellies, and juices. ​ WARNINGS: The fruit has a large seed inside; be careful not to bite down with too much force or swallow the whole fruit. ​ Location on campus: In front of the arts building on the gravel, grass, and bordering the bike racks. ​ Recipes: Jelly Pindo Palm Pineapple Guava Common Names: Pineapple Guava Latin Name: Feijoa sellowiana A flowering tropical evergreen shrub or multi-trunk tree with shiny foliage and white undersided ovular leaves. Stands between 18-25 feet tall and wide. The flower has a sweet pineapple, apple and minty fragrance and looks like a bright pink firework with pink hairs in the center of 4 white to purple-tinged, curled petals. The flowers and fruits are edible. The fruits are light to deep green, round to oblong with a 4-pronged obtrusion opposite the stem. The fruit is safe to eat whole and raw; the skin is tough and bitter but the inside is sweet and almost gooey with small edible seeds. Pineapple guava fruit season is early November to December but can last until early Spring depending on the area. Ripe pineapple guavas will fall to the ground. It has been used in salads in South America, along with chutneys and deserts. The feijoa has no known medicinal properties, but it is sometimes used as a digestive aid and cosmetic exfoliant, and its skin has been studied for its antibacterial properties . This tree is native to native to Southern Brazil and attracts bees, squirrels, and birds . The fragrant aroma is due to the ester methyl benzoate compound in the fruit . ​ WARNINGS: None. ​ Location on campus: All around IV and campus. Along sidewalks and parking lots. ​ Recipes: Quick Bread ; Loaf, Curd, Jam, Salad, Bread, & Pie Pineapple Guava Pineapple Weed Common Names: Pineapple Weed, Street Weed, False Chamomile Latin Name: Matricaria matricariodes Spanish Name: Hierba de piña Pineapple Weed is a low growing plant with fine, feathered leaves, and smells of pineapple when crushed. The flowers are small, yellow, composite cones without petals. It grows in many places in both polar hemispheres, typically where the soil is dry, disturbed and otherwise unpleasant for many other plants. The flowers and leaves can be eaten raw or in tea; the flowers can be dried out and ground into flour. It has similar properties to its cousin, Chamomile: helps with relaxation, sleep, digestion and colds. It can also be used as an insect repellent. ​ WARNINGS: It looks similar to Chamomile, Mayweed and Dog Fennel, although when crushed, Pineapple Weed smells like pineapples. Try to harvest it in places where dogs and chemicals can’t reach the plant. Some people are allergic to this plant. ​ Location in IV/Campus: These plants can be found most places in Isla Vista and in some weedier areas on campus. ​ Recipes: Tea, Cookies, Jam Pineapple Weed Plantain (Narrow & Broadleaf) Common Names: Narrow and Broadleaf Plantain Latin Name: Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major There are two types of plantain found on campus, the broadleaf and narrowleaf. The leaves are rounded with a point on the end and have slightly jagged or wavy edges. Leaves are usually arranged in a basal rosette, even more commonly with the stockier broad leaf plantain. They have 5-7 parallel leaf veins with a rough texture on both sides and a fibrous root system. When flowering in late spring-fall, plantain grows a long, 8in stalk with tiny flowers. The ripe seeds from this stalk can be collected, ground and made into a flour. The leaves are edible and are best picked when they are young for salads. Older leaves can be soaked in salt water for 4 minutes and cooked like spinach. Broadleaf plantain also has medicinal uses. It can be chewed and placed on stings, cuts or poison oak rashes to ease inflammation. ​ WARNINGS: None. ​ Location on campus: All around IV and campus in lawns (broad leaf), weed patches, disturbed sites, lagoon island (narrow leaf). ​ Recipes: Sesame and Wilted Plantain Sauté , Plantain Soup , Plantain Chips , First Aid Ointment ; Our Insect and Bee sting remedy Plantain Prickly Pear Cactus Common Names: Prickly Pear, Cactus Pear, Indian Fig Latin Name: Opuntia spp. Spanish Name: Nopal, Tuna The prickly pear cactus is a common name for the genus Opuntia which represents many varieties of prickly pear cactus, including beavertail and Santa Rita cactus. The cactus is native to the United States and South America but can be found around the world. The cactus has fleshy, flat oval pads, called pencas in Spanish, with defensive spines and smaller glochids, or hair-like spines. The varieties can grow up to 20 feet tall. The pads produce bright and brilliant flowers from late spring to early summer that range from yellow, orange, pink, and red. The flowers grow on the tip of the cactus pads and can grow up to three to four inches wide. After the flower has finished blooming, the prickly pear fruit, or tuna in Spanish, form. The edible fruit is pear shaped and varies in color from green (less sweet) to red (very sweet). The fruit has a sweet taste and the taste changes depending on variety of prickly pear. Many have described the flavor of a prickly pear fruit as melon, strawberry, watermelon, or citrus. Harvest prickly pear fruit anytime from early Spring through late Fall. The pads of the prickly pear are edible and taste like green beans. The younger, greener pads are often harvested and eaten as they have the fewest spines and are more tender. Some Native Americans used the fruit to make candy and chewing gum. Native Americans used the sap from the pads on cuts, burns, and bruises to soothe the wound. Traditionally, the young pads can be used as a laxative and can be used to treat diabetes. ​ WARNINGS: Be careful of spikes and glochids or the pads and fruit. Glochids will easily fall off from the cactus and imbed in skin and cause irritation. ​ Location in IV/Campus: Can be found near Fortuna behind the Camino Corto Open Space ​ Recipe: Cactus salad (ensalada de nopales), Nopal cactus taco recipe , Prickly pear juice (agua de tuna), Prickly pear jelly Prickly Pear Cactus Rosemary Common Names: Rosemary Latin Name: Rosemarinus officinalis Short bush with fragrant branch extensions and small flowers. Low-the-the-ground bushes with straight branches covered with small light purple flowers and fragrant branch extensions. Branch extensions, small purple flowers are edible and used as herbal topping, flavor, scent, or fragrance. Pick the rosemary by the branch and remove the pieces from the branch to add as seasoning/topping/ flavoring. It has a strong herbal aroma. Used as an essential oil/ topical. Rosemary essential oil is beneficial for hair growth. ​ WARNINGS: None. ​ Location on campus: All around IV and campus. Along sidewalks and parking lots. ​ Recipes: Rosemary potatoes ; Our Rosemary Shortbread Cookies Rosemary Sage Common Names: Sage (Common Sage/Garden Sage) Latin Name: Salvia officinalis Sage is native to the Mediterranean region and is a part of the mint family (Lamiaceae). It has purple flowers (other colors may include pink, white, and red) and ovular downy leaves which have a pungent smell and vary in color from green-white to green-gray. The plant generally grows to be 2-3ft high. Sage is a perennial plant and can be collected year-round. Simply pick the leaves off of the plant. Used as an aroma therapeutic, spiritual cleansing, scent. The flavor is herbal and earthy with a rather strong scent. May alleviate indigestion, inflammation. May have mild antiseptic and antibacterial qualities. Sage was believed to improve memory and increase mental capacity in medieval Europe. Burning dried sage is practiced and believed by some to promote protection in an area (such as a house or shelter). ​ WARNINGS: Thujone is present in some species and can cause kidney damage, seizures, and other ailments if taken in very large doses. ​ Location on campus: Near UCSB greenhouse. Near Manzanita residence halls. ​ Recipes: Edible uses, Tea (soak the leaves in hot water) , flavoring for meat, especially poultry recipes Sage Sour Grass Common Names: Sour Grass Latin Name: Oxalis stricta This common perennial has yellow flowers with five parts and can grow up to 50-100cm in height. Leaves are alternate and form three heart shaped leaflets, much like a three leafed clover. We have observed the plant to bloom during the rainy season when it begins to warm up; it needs a lot of water. Pick leaves, flowers or stems to chew on. Tastes sour, but in a pleasant way, although can occasionally be extremely tart. Oxalic acid gives the plant its sour taste. A yellow-orange dye can be made of the plant by boiling it. ​ WARNINGS: Oxalic acid is toxic in large doses ​ Location on campus: Found in newly disturbed, wet areas like fields and planters that have gone wild. ​ Recipes: Sour Apple Spritzer ; We made a raspberry flavored tea by soaking chopped stems in boiling water. Sour Grass Strawberry Guava Common Names: Strawberry Guava Latin Name: Psidium cattleyanum Spanish Name: Guaya fresa The Strawberry Guava is a tree native to Brazil that belongs to the family Myrtaceae. The fruit of the Strawberry Guava is spherical, small (about 4 cm long), and red/purple in color when ripe. It has glossy, green, oval leaves and white flowers with five petals. The Strawberry Guava produces fruit year round. Trees on campus produce ripe fruit at different times depending on their location. To collect, simply pick the fruit off the tree. The fruit only lasts 1-2 days at room temperature. The Strawberry Guava is sweet, but also has a slight tang. The fruit tastes like its name, with flavors of strawberry and guava. The fruit is high in antioxidants and has anti-inflammatory effects. The Strawberry Guava helps with digestion because it contains a large amount of fiber. It helps prevent scurvy because it contains Vitamin C. The Strawberry Guava is also known as cherry guava, purple guava, and cattley guava. Strawberry Guava is an invasive species on the Hawaiian Islands. It has invaded hundreds of thousands of acres on the islands and threatens to spread even more. Non-native pigs and birds facilitate its spread when they eat the fruit. ​ WARNINGS: Only eat the fruit of the Strawberry Guava, as it is the only part of the plant that is edible. ​ Location on campus: West side of South Hall, South/East side of Harold Frank Hall, and Robertson Gymnasium. ​ Recipes: Jam , Juice , Jello Strawberry Guava Strawberry Tree Common Names: Strawberry Tree Latin Name: Arbutus unedo The Strawberry Tree is a relatively short tree, 15 to 30 ft high. When mature, the fruit of the Strawberry Tree is spherical, small, red in color, and has a rough and bumpy outer layer. The texture is strange on the tongue. White bell shaped flowers grow in small clusters. The bark is a reddish-brown color that peels in the sun. The leaves are green, glossy and serrated. It is an evergreen and often used ornamentally. The fruit is the only part of the Strawberry Tree that is edible. The fruit is best to eat in Autumn, when the fruit matures. Simply pick the fruit off the tree. It has a sweet taste, and has flavors that have hints of strawberry and peach. May lower blood pressure and fight against colds. Contains tannins and Vitamin C. The tree is related to Manzanitas (aka refrigerator trees). The bark peels because it gets sunburnt! The Strawberry Tree is part of the Coat of Arms of Madrid. The Coat of Arms depicts a bear eating from a Strawberry Tree. The Strawberry Tree was mentioned by Ovid, a Roman poet from the first century BCE, in his work titled Metamorphoses. In Ireland the ballad “My love’s an Arbutus” correlates the strawberry tree and true love qualities ​ WARNINGS: Make sure to only eat the fruit on the tree. Under ripe fruit can cause nausea. Overripe fruit can cause intoxication ​ Location on campus: There are Strawberry Trees located on the South side of Broida Hall, on the South side of the Humanities and Social Sciences Building, in the Girvetz courtyard, along El Colegio heading West from campus towards Santa Ynez housing, as well as near Webb Hall. They are all over campus. ​ Recipes: Jam ; To make the herbal tea, soak the Strawberry Tree leaves in a cup of hot water. Other things like lemon zest can be added to improve the taste. Strawberry Tree Wild Radish Common Names: Wild Radish Latin Name: Raphanus raphanistrum, Raphanus sativus Spanish Name: Rabanillo Wild radish is a common annual weed in the mustard (brassicaceae) family and is native to eurasia. The roots of the wild radish are edible, but are often smaller and less appetizing than radish from the grocery store. Leaves are lobed and tough, and grow off of a bristly stalk that grows up to two feet tall. The leaves can be eaten raw and cooked and are best collected when they are young. Its flowers are edible and have four petals up to about an inch long. Flower colors range from white, pink, purple, and yellow, and can exhibit a streaking pattern. Wild radish hybridizes with cultivated radish, contributing to the range of colors seen in its flowers. Spring and summertime are generally the best time to forage this plant. The seed pods of the radish are also edible. The pods grow off of the stem, have a long roundish shape, and are around one to three inches long and up to ¼ of an inch wide. ​ WARNINGS: Try to avoid eating these in places where dogs could have urinated on them or where people are spraying pesticides. ​ Location in IV/Campus: Found in weedy fields intermixed with grasses, and other disturbed areas. ​ Recipes: Pickled wild radish pods ; Sautéed wild radish ; Wild radish pesto Wild Radish Fascinating Flora Fascinating Flora UCSB campus has an astounding amount of botanical biodiversity thanks to a wide range of people from horticulturists and the environmentally minded, to home gardeners and restorationists. Each has had a unique hand in shaping the quirky, beautiful landscape that we see today. Some of these plants are in collections from specific continents, or are meant to reflect native California ecosystems, while still others mind the drought and require little water or were planted as part of the Edible Campus Project so students can get free produce. There are even hidden gems that to most just look like a nondescript plant but to the informed is a window into the mind of the botanist that planted it. ​ The wonderful Mediterranean climate of Santa Barbara also allows for a massive variety of plants to grow and reproduce, making this the perfect place for an exotic garden collection. UCSB is home to many rare and endangered species. Without further ado, let’s explore them! Table of Contents: Particularly Pulchritudinous Plants Bauhinia purpurea Senna pendula var. Glabrata Spathodea campanulata Eschscholzia californica Strangely Structured Stems Agave attenuata Araucaria bidwillii Bambusoideae Fascinating Phloem Facts Metasequoia glyptostroboides Typha latifolia Particularly Pulchritudinous Plants Oddly enough the word pulchritudinous means beautiful! This campus is home to some of the most gorgeous plants you will see in California. I speculate this is because the school uses recycled water on the plants, which means that more water can be used without "wastage". Many plants need a lot of water to grow beautifully, which is why native plants in this state rarely have huge flowers or broad leaves (read: it rarely rains and we are constantly in a drought). Bauhinia purpurea Also known as the Orchid Tree, Butterfly Tree, and my personal favorites: the Camel's Foot Tree and Gorro de Napoleón (Napoleon's Hat). But don't let the name fool you! It is not actually in the Orchid family, but in the Legume family. This lovely plant is native to southern Asia. It has a potentially record breaking method of seed dispersal: it can shoot them as far as 49 feet from the parent tree! The bark, roots and flowers have been used in traditional medicines, not to mention many parts are eaten! Senna pendula var. Glabrata The misnomer Easter Cassia, or the more correct Winter Senna, are both common names for this lovely yellow flowering invasive legume. Native to tropical South America, but naturalized in many parts of the world due to its weediness, this showy plant is the bane of many experienced gardeners and the bell of Christmas-time landscaping in warm regions. Find this lovely plant in the courtyard between the Life Science and Noble Hall buildings. Spathodea campanulata Also known as the African Tulip Tree, Fireball, Flame of the Forest, Fountain Tree, Pickari, Nandi Flame and Squirt Tree; the latter name comes from the strange quality of how nectar can squirt from the flower if squeezed properly. The tree is native to tropical Africa (surprise surprise) and can reach 80 feet tall in its natural range, but is stunted in dry California. It is considered one of the world’s top 100 most invasive species; although this is only seen in wet areas. The flowers are considered “perfect,” which means they contain both male and female parts. The seeds of the yellow flowering tree are infertile and to a graft must be used from another tree to grow a new one. The flowers are a very interesting trumpet shape and the buds look like clusters of animal claws. Eschscholzia californica The Eschscholzia californica, known as California Poppy, as golden poppy, flame flower, copa de oro (cup of gold), among other names is a deep-rooted perennial and flowering annual plant native to the western United States. It is one of 11 species of poppies that naturally occur in the western United States. The flowers stun many with its brilliant orange, yellow, or cream hue and satiny petals. Native Americans used poppies for a myriad of purposes, including food and medicine. The roots were used as a sedative and analgesic and the petals chewed like gum or candy. However, the California poppy may be toxic when used without sufficient preparation. Bauhinia purpurea Senna pendula var. Glabrata Spathodea campanulata Eschscholzia californica Strangely Structured Stems This section is about all the funky looking plants we have on campus. The wide variety of adaptations seen in plants exist for any number of reasons, and some times for no reason at all! Adaptations can assist in: attracting specific or general pollinators; attracting specific herbivores which will digest their seeds in a way conducive to germination; or scaring away or harming other herbivores; reacting to seasonal environmental disturbances such as fires or floods. There are many other reasons for traits in plants; you name it, some plant somewhere probably has that adaptation. Come explore some of the interestingly adapted plants we have on campus. Agave attenuata Also known as Foxtail, Swan’s Neck or Lion’s Tail Agave. They send their reproductive parts high into the air (10 feet) to protect them from herbivores. Bats are their biggest wild pollinator. Agave are succulents, much more closely related to the Asparagus family than the cactus family. These plants are monocarpic, meaning once they flower they die. Agaves are used to make tequila and syrup. Indigenous people to North America, the Hohokam and Navajo, used agave as food. Agave reproduce via ‘pups’ which are tiny plants the grow from the flower stock, rhizomes and along the main trunk of the plant. Araucaria bidwillii Also known as the Bunya Bunya Pine, can be found along the main bike path in front of HSSB. This tree exhibits a dark brown, thick trunk and its leaves are a glossy green color, stiff, and pointy. This tree can grow up to a 150 feet tall and culminates in a domed peak. Horizontal branches are arranged in as regular pattern. The seed cones can be larger than bowling balls. Cones resemble coconuts from afar on the tree, although up close look more oval shaped. It is native to south-east Queensland, Australia. Nuts inside of the pine cone are edible raw and ripe between December and March, although they should be eaten within seven days of falling from the tree. Acts as an antimicrobial preventing food poisoning and food from spoiling. Aborigines in the tree’s native habitat in Australia used to make peace between tribes for the harvesting of the seeds without disputes. When collecting the cones watch for ones that are falling; if hit it they can prove fatal. The leaves/branches are sharp and rather painful to pick up or step on. Bambusoideae Bamboo is a flowering plant that is a member of the subfamily Bambusoideae, which is in the larger grass family Poaceae. It is found in a variety of both hot and cold climates. Bamboo forms green stalks that extend upwards, almost vertically, from the ground. The bamboo stalks contain leaves, which are also green. Bamboo is one of the fastest growing plants in the world, due to its rhizome dependent system. Some species of bamboo can grow to be 1300’ tall. Bamboo flowers are rarely seen because most species flower every 20 to 120 years. Bamboo flowers gregariously, which means that all plants with the same parent plant will spontaneously begin to flower at the same time, regardless of geographic location, and will continue to flower for several years until all of the flowering plants die to make room for the next generation that was just seeded. None of the bamboo varieties on the UCSB campus are edible; raw shoots, even in the edible types, have a chemical called cyanogenic glycosides that is toxic to humans if not destroyed by thorough cooking. Bamboo shavings are used in Chinese medicine to combat cold and flu-like symptoms. Bamboo sap and leaves are used in Chinese medicine to fight fevers. Agave Araucaria bidwillii Bambusoideae Fascinating Phloem Facts This section talks about plants with interesting histories and adaptations. Metasequoia glyptostroboides The dawn redwood, a deciduous tree of Chinese origin, was shocking to us because of the fact that it loses its needles with the changing seasons--something that very few conifers do . Another amazing fact about this tree is that, up until recently, it was thought to be extinct ! It was rediscovered in a small province in China, growing in wet valleys and being used as food for cattle . Due to its historical hiddenness and small relic distribution, it was known by its fossil record before it was known as an extant species . This lovely tree went from a nearly extinct species to a widely used ornamental plant, giving it its status as a Chinese conservation icon . Find this lovely plant in the courtyard between the Life Science and Noble Hall buildings. Typha latifolia Cattails also go by Espadana (Spanish), broad-leaved cattail, reedmace, candlewick, and bulrushes. They are native to almost all the Americas, Africa, and western Eurasia. Cattails upright perennials that are largely recognizable due to their cigar-like flower with a yellow spike on top; this cigar-shaped flower is the female flower, while the spikes are the male flowers. The male and female flowers rest on top of a long, green stalk (6 - 12 feet). Cattails play an important role in their ecosystems as they cleanse waterways and provide habitats for many different organisms. Certain parts of the cattail are edible, such as the pollen, young flower and roots, and were used by Native Americans, like the Pueblo, Chumash, and Ojibwe to make flour due to their high starch levels. Cattails also have many other uses besides sustenance: the “cigar” part of the cattail can be used like down for jackets, coats, pillows, among other things; the leaves can be woven into mats and baskets; they can be used to make poultices and as an antiseptic; and a myriad of other uses not explored here. WARNING: Do not confuse the cattail with the wild iris, which is a poisonous look alike for juvenile cattails. Metasequoia Typha latifolia References General Project Resource: Bauhinia purpurea Senna pendula var. Glabrata Spathodea campanulata Eschscholzia californica Agave attenuata Araucaria bidwillii Bambusoideae Metasequoia glyptostroboides Typha latifolia Blackberry Bluedicks Mother Nature’s Backyard. (2017). “Plant of the Month (March): Wild hyacinth (blue dicks) – Dichelostemma capitatum.” [Blog]. Recuperated from The Nature Collective. “Blue Dicks: Dichelostemma capitatum.” [Blog]. Recuperated from Richie, Bill. (2011). “Blue Dicks, Desert Hyacinth: Dichelostemma capitatum.” Project Noah. [Blog]. Recuperated from Chickweed Hen of the Wood. (2016). “Foraging: Identifying Wild Chickweed.” The Foraged Foodie. [Blog]. Recuperated from Wild Edible. “Chickweed.” [Blog]. Recuperated from Wild Abundance. (2016). “The Glories of Chickweed: Uses, Cultivation, Recipes, and More.” [Blog]. Recuperated from Penniless Parenting. (2013). Foraging Chickweed-Wild Edibles.” [Blog]. Recuperated from Dandelion Fig Firethorn Ice Plant Kumquat Lavender Lemonade Berry Lemon Loquat Mallow Manzanita Miner's Lettuce Medicinal Herbs. “Miner’s Lettuce.” [Blog]. Recuperated from's-lettuce.php Plants for a Future. “Claytonia perfoliata-Donn. Ex Willd.” [Blog]. Recuperated from Edible Wild Food. “Miner’s Lettuce: Claytonia perfoliata.” [Blog]. Recuperated from Superfood Evolution. “Harvesting Miners Lettuce, a Wild Green Super Food.”[Blog]. Recuperated from Mugwort James D. Adams Jr. and Cecilia Garcia. 2016. Healing with Medicinal Plants of the West. pp39-41. Print. Natal Plum Oregon Grape Pickleweed Pindo Palm Pineapple Guava Pineapple Weed Plantain Elias, T. and P. Dykeman, (1990). Edible Wild Plants: A North American Field Guide to Over 200 Natural Foods. Stirling: New York. Prickly Pear Cactus ​​ Sage 00000aacb362&acdnat=1509317763_5e7fde6568651a8c10eae9850c6a53e1 Sour Grass Strawberry Guava Wild Radish

  • S’axpilil | Hoelle Lab

    Image by Edewaa Foster Home About Projects S'axpilil: Twin Lakes Golf Course One of, if not the most important Chumash sites in the area was known as S’axpilil which translates to ‘roots’. The significance of this name likely comes from the sheer size of this village and the ways most Chumash of the area can trace their lineage back to this place. While not necessarily the ancestral home of the Barbareño Chumash, S’axpilil was held in high regard by residents of the Goleta Valley. Some records show this site being referred to as Mexcaltitan by the Spanish rather than the site of Helo’, or that it was an alias for the village. Another similarity to Helo’ is the high number of chiefs or capitanes that occupied this area. Today, this site is found in the general region of the Twin Lakes Golf Course just north of the airport. Had at least 4 capitanes or lineage heads similar to Helo'. 1769 Portola Expedition: The only rancheria in Goleta actually visited. Came unarmed and brought the explorers much fish and mush, likely acorns. 1787 January 24, 4 children from here became the first Goleta people to join new community at Santa Barbara. 1798 October 17-18, a large social gathering was held and many native peoples from the Santa Ynez rancherias likely for the fall harvest ceremony. 1788 Approximately, referred to by Fr. Fermín Francisco de Lasuén as ‘San Gabriel de Saspilil’ and confused with ‘San Rafael’ but this name, like the others he assigned to the Goleta towns, would not last very long. 1812 Major earthquake destroyed San Miguel Chapel. 1803 Chapels dedicated to San Miguel and San Francisco built. 1824 Juan Fructuoso Suluajinasu died during the Chumash Uprising of 1824. Fr. Crespí on Chumash soc: Houses so large they easily house 60 people, with beds off of the floor. At all these towns they have well crafted flutes/pipes to use for dancing with large feathered headdresses and thick body paint. 1834 Governor José Figueroa led the process for full secularization of Mission Santa Barbara. TODAY The site of what was formerly known as S’axpilil is under the current ownership of Twin Lakes Golf Course on Hollister Avenue. Image by Edewaa Foster Back to the Map Sources: Johnson, John R. “The Rancherias of Mescaltitan: Chumash History and Sociopolitical Organization in the Goleta Valley.” GOLETA SLOUGH PREHISTORY: Insights Gained from a Vanishing Archaeological Record, vol. 4, SANTA BARBARA MUS OF NAT, 2020, pp. 17–51. Contributions in Anthropology. ( )

  • The Past, Presence, & Future ... | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects The Past, Present & Future of Fungi Image by Florian Van Duyn Many people are gripped with mycophobia, or the fear of mushrooms. Mushrooms can be dangerous and many people have died from touching, consuming, or breathing in spores. It is true that mushrooms can be scary, but by being careful and educating yourself there is mushroom for fun! ​ Mushrooms have a deep history and have been used for centuries by ancient civilizations for various purposes. Ancient civilizations have touted mushrooms for their health benefits and go as far to call them, “the Food of the Gods” and “elixir of life ”. Indian tribes in Mexico, prior to the Spanish conquest, used psychedelic mushrooms in religious ceremonies due to their ability to alter thoughts, words, and perceptions . Many civilizations have also used mushrooms medicinally, such as ancient China who used fungi as the best treatment against tumors . These human interactions with mushrooms have been well documented and shown the useful interactions of human and fungi. Past civilizations have proven that mushrooms, despite being intimidating, have an abundance of uses rightfully earn them their title of, “plants of gods”. ​ Mushrooms are slowly but steadily captivating society and have introduced themselves in many aspects of daily life. Climate change is on everyone’s radar and has motivated people to change how they interact with the environment. People are now moving away from meat to reduce their carbon emissions, and are now looking towards mushrooms for solutions. Mushrooms are a great replacement for resource intensive meat products as, “they provide all the essential amino acids for adult requirements; also, mushrooms have higher protein content than most vegetables ” among other nutritional benefits. Quorn, a vegan food brand, uses mycoprotein, a protein derived from fungus, to replicate chicken nuggets, hamburger patties, among other American favorites. Mycoprotein and mushroom production requires little space and resources , so it is a promising replacement for animal products which require an exorbitant amount of energy and is guilt free. ​ The future of fungi has mushroom for growth as there are many uses for fungi yet to be discovered. Mushrooms are making strides medically as there has been a surge of research targeted at anti-tumor mushrooms, which were once used in ancient China . There is also research currently conducted on the use of plastic eating fungi to mitigate the issue of the lifespan of plastics in bodies of water . ​ History has shown the deep connections that human societies have with the famed mushroom. We have foraged, grew, and industrially created them to solve much of life’s ailments and problems. Human interactions with mushrooms have shown the myriad of known and potential uses, showing the socio-ecological bonds that we have forged over time. There is much about the mushroom that has yet to be discovered and mushrooms may have the potential to help us navigate the anthropocene. More About Mushrooms Sources: Valverde ME, Hernández-Pérez T, Paredes-López O. Edible mushrooms: improving human health and promoting quality life. Int J Microbiol. 2015;2015:376387. doi:10.1155/2015/376387 Brunner, I., Fischer, M., Rüthi, J., Stierli, B., & Frey, B. (2018). Ability of fungi isolated from plastic debris floating in the shoreline of a lake to degrade plastics. Plos One, 13(8). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202047

  • About Art | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects Image from Santa Barbara Independent About Art Cisneros Chumash Elder & Fire Keeper "Art Cisneros is a Chumash elder and firekeeper. He is of Chumash descent on his mother’s side and Mexican descent on his father’s. Though his roots in Santa Barbara County go back tens of thousands of years, Cisneros isn’t focused on the past but rather on the present and the future. Technically retired, he works passionately to unite humanity in caring for “our Mom”: planet Earth. Striving to live up to his Chumash name, “Earth Man with a Good Heart,” he holds fire ceremonies and tells about our need to heal our relationships with ourselves, the Earth, and each other" (Leslee Goodman). Read the Full Profile "The Chumash People are the original native peoples of the central California Coast. Art holds the sacred space for their annual Tomol crossing to Limu on the Channel Islands. His spiritual name means “Earth Man with a Good Heart” and he truly embodies these virtues. Art also speaks throughout the US for the indigenous voice and for those who have no voice. He offers fire ceremonies at his home for the Santa Barbara community and also offers healing and cleansing ceremonies. Cisneros believes that the time is now for all of us to begin the process of restoring the balance of energy. “We can heal each and the world through our willingness to share what we hold as material wealth and what we hold in our heart as love, kindness, compassion, and generosity”. ​ - Tribal Trust Foundation, "About" Art Cisneros Visit Tribal Trust Foundation Back to Ancient Herbs

  • Scavenger Hunts | Hoelle Lab

    Home Database Maps Guidelines Engaging Ebot IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT DIY: Scavenger Hunt Easy Scavenger Hunt I learned through experience that scavenger hunts for beginner outdoorspeople and city-people need to assume that participants have very little knowledge of the outdoors. Wander the park, take your time! Please use different plants/animals for each question. Have fun! Name as many plants in the park as you can (try for 4)! Close your eyes: describe 2 different noises you hear. Without looking, what are they? Find 2 flowering plants. Draw their flowers here. Come to me and ask for an edible plant. What does it taste like? Compare it to something you have eaten before. Find a plant with a hairy stem or hairy leaves. What do the hairs feel like (soft, prickly, etc)? What do you think the hairs are for? Find an insect. Draw its eyes here. Find 2 kinds of plants that smell good when you crush them. Describe their smells. Take a few minutes and watch a single bird that is in the park. Follow it carefully without scaring it. Take note of what it’s doing. Write down some questions you have about its behavior. Come back to the backpacks. Lay down on the grass and close your eyes. What can you smell from that level? NOT So Easy Scavenger Hunt My first attempt at a scavenger hunt for beginners was a huge fail because it was far too complex. So if you have some more advanced naturalists (not super knowledgable , but also not beginners), try this one on for size.

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