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- Projects | Hoelle Lab
Home About Projects CULTIVATING COMMUNITIES Student Projects By Donovan Velasquez In order to truly understand the cultural landscape of our Isla Vista and UCSB home, we must first learn about the first peoples of Goleta Valley, the Chumash. Navigate this interactive map to discover timelines all about the hidden historical past. Explore By Logan Snyder Within this three part series, I will guide you through the processes of gardening and foraging within Isla Vista, along with easy, flavorful, and sustainable recipes that you can cook at home. Explore By Natalie Plumb I will take you step by step through how to sustainably beachcomb for materials you can use to make your own watercolor paints, resin jewelry, and a seaglass mosaic picture frame. Explore By Olivia Robért With the help of Chumash elder, Art Cisneros, I will introduce you to the world of medicinal herbs. Here, you can learn about the importance of reciprocity and the benefits of mugwort and elderberry. Explore By Delcia Orona Join me in an exploration of the traces present across Isla Vista and the UCSB campus. Through this collection, we can begin to recognize the commonly unseen or forgotten, and reimagine our influence on the environment. Explore By Jack Greenberg & Gavin Robbins Thatcher Embark on a cinematic journey that follows local Isla Vistan and avid skater, Dmitry, as he transverses the cultural landscape of Isla Vista on his way to watch the sunset. Along the way, he meets other locals who share valuable ecological knowledge with him. Explore By Briana Pham My project will teach you about the fantastic world of mushrooms, from mushroom history and uses, to how to sustainably forage, to how to grow your own mushrooms at home! Explore By Joshua Richardson My article will help you consider the ethical implications of each of our interactions with the local environment; how we affect the environment, but also, how the environment affects us. Explore By Karma Rhythm This project serves two purposes, to tell my story, as well as to entice, encourage, and provide knowledge which will facilitate any other Isla Vistans who are interested in gardening, or even just getting more in touch with nature. Explore
- Maps | Hoelle Lab
Home Database Maps Guidelines Engaging Ebot Cultivating Communities IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT Maps of Plants Around UCSB and Isla Vista BEFORE YOU FORAGE: Please enjoy educating your taste buds, but PLEASE DO NOT take any unnecessary risks if you are unsure about a plant and check out our Foraging Guidelines before you interact with any plants. In addition, many plants on this page are NOT edible, so please pay special attention to the map labels and descriptions below to determine which plants are edible and which ones are not. Edible, Useful, and Medicinal Plants This map contains the locations and names of edible, medicinal, and useful plants we have identified on the UCSB campus. Please pay close attention to plant species names and listed locations and acquaint yourself with the descriptions and information provided in the Plant Database section before collecting. Please do not take any risks if you are unsure about a plant, and use your own common sense when locating and collecting plants. Be sure to check listed information to ensure correct location and identification of edible plants, and remember to clean your fruit with potable water before consumption! Map Key: Edible Raw Useful and Edible Edible AFTER Preparation Useful but NOT Edible Medicinal A Good Place to Find Uncultivated Plants To see what is seasonally available, click on the box in the upper left corner of the map below. Then select the season that you want to find food in! Fascinating Flora This map contains the locations of interesting, gorgeous, dangerous and strange plants on campus. To find descriptions and other information about each of these, check out our Fascinating Flora Database . Map Key: Strangely Structured Stems Particularly Pulchritudinous Plants Flamboyant Phloem Facts Delectably Dangerous Dicots
- Watercolor Paints | Hoelle Lab
Make Your Own: Watercolor Paints with Plants Foraging with: Laura Tucker and Natalie Plumb Beachcombing Enthusiasts NP Home About Projects Living on the Santa Barbara coast, we are surrounded by an expansive variety of plant and animal species. In just the time it takes you to ride your bike from Coal Oil Point to Davidson Library, you can see hundreds of species of flowers, fruits, and other vegetation, many of which can be turned into natural paint. Whether you are an experienced artist or have never picked up a paint brush in your life, making your own paints from the plants in our local environment is a perfect way to spend the day. For this project, I teamed up with local beachcombing enthusiast and UCSB student, Laura Tucker. While Laura has taken several environmental and ethnobotany courses and is somewhat familiar with identifying plant species, she has little artistic experience. On the other hand, I have been painting practically my entire life, but I have no foraging experience or skills in identifying particular plant species. We made the perfect team! Inspired by local Chumash paint making traditions, we began our own paint making journey beachcombing the bluffs above Devereux beach. Early Paint Making: “Though we often think of early native groups as ‘one with nature’, not changing or impacting but simply living off the land, in reality, the Chumash actively engaged with and altered their environment, creating a living artifact which continues to be shaped today ” (IV Ethnobotany). Making paint from natural materials is not a new phenomenon. Archaeologists have dated the earliest cave paintings to the Paleolithic age, stretching back as early as 23,000 BCE, with the creation of Pech-Merle and Lascaux, two of the most famous Paleolithic cave painting sites in France. These early painters ground up red and yellow clay, often referred to as ocher, into powder that was mixed with water. They made their paint brushes from reeds and twigs taken from their environment (Kleiner p. 17). While the Chumash were certainly not the first people to make paints from natural materials, oral traditions and archaeological studies provide insight into the paint making techniques of the communities that initially inhabited the land that is now Isla Vista and the UCSB campus. The Chumash made black paint from grounding up charcoal and used iron oxide to make red, purple, yellow, and orange. They mixed these paint powders in stone cups with water, milkweed, cucumber seeds, animal oil, or the whites of birds’ eggs to create different consistencies. They made their paint brushes from yucca and animal tails (The Chumash People p. 69). The tradition of Chumash rock painting has been preserved in caves throughout the Santa Barbara and Santa Ynez areas. You can view one such cave and appreciate the beauty of early Chumash paint making for yourself by visiting the “Chumash Painted Cave” in the Santa Barbara mountains, or by taking a virtual tour on the CYARK website. Visit "Chumash Painted Cave" First Peoples Image of Chumash Painted Cave, Santa Barbara Photograph by Kristina D.C. Hoeppner Our Isla Vista Paint Making Journey: For our own paint making project, we decided to take inspiration from Chumash foraging and beachcombing practices, combining them with recipes from my favorite arts and crafts online blogs. In the true beachcombing spirit, we began our paint making journey on the bluffs overlooking Devereux beach, then continued on bike around the slough and North Campus Open Space, across campus, and concluded at Campus Point. Since we had never made paints before, our foraging experience was an exciting experiment. We had no idea what to expect, which plants would make the best paints, or even if the flowers we found would produce usable pigment. With only a basket to hold the products of our foraging strapped to Laura's bike, we set out in search of vibrant flowers and juicy fruits that we could use to make water color paints. As we stopped to collect flowers, we took photos of each plant so that we could identify them later using the IV Ethnobotany website and the PlantNet mobile app. Along the way, we discovered parts of Isla Vista and campus we had never seen and encountered a wide range of wildlife, including a Great Egret. We returned home not only with a basket full of brilliantly colored flowers and fruits, but also knowledge of brand new places we could enjoy in our very own backyard, namely the slough and North Campus Open Space. Whether you are an avid runner, bird watcher, or in search of a gorgeous nature walk, the North Campus Open Space offers something for you. Visit the North Campus Open Space Laura Tucker biking/foraging along Devereux bluffs Video by Natalie Plumb The Fruits of Our Foraging: Despite being the end of February, Laura and I found ourselves enjoying a warm and sunny day while foraging. Hopping off her bike to gather lavender, Laura, overlooking the breathtaking Goleta slough, perfectly summed up our foraging adventure: "I can not imagine a better way to spend today." To the right, you can view images taken of the various flowers and fruits we collected. While Laura was able to identify some species on the spot, we had to rely on the IV Ethnobotany website and PlantNet to identify the majority of the species. To find out where you can locate for yourself some of the plants featured in our project, visit the IV Ethnobotany website. Visit IV Ethnobotany Here are a few of the plants we were able to identify and where we found them: Devereux bluffs: California bush sunflower, sage, ice plant, mustard Goleta slough: lavender, Indian cres North Campus Open Space: firethorn Sueno Park/Orchard: strawberry guava UCSB campus: natal plum Before foraging on your own, make sure to consult the IV Ethnobotany "Foraging Guidelines" to ensure that you are staying safe, following the law, and being mindful of the ethical implications of foraging. California Bush Sunflower Encelia californica; Bush sunflower; California brittlebush Location: Devereux bluffs Paint: vibrant yellow water color Sage Salvia officinalis Location: Devereux bluffs Fruits of Our Foraging The result of an afternoon of foraging; This is a top view of the basket strapped to Laura's bike. California Bush Sunflower Encelia californica; Bush sunflower; California brittlebush Location: Devereux bluffs Paint: vibrant yellow water color 1/19 Slideshow of the plants we collected while foraging All images by Natalie Plumb Foraging Guidelines Beachcombing the Devereux bluffs Video by Natalie Plumb How to Turn Plants into Paints: Following the Chumash tradition of grounding up plant matter, then mixing it with water, we began experimenting with the different plants we foraged. The foraging part is without a doubt the most time consuming and difficult part of the paint making process, but it is also the most fun and rewarding. After you have gathered the plants you want to make into paint, the process is straightforward and requires very few materials. All you need is: containers (to sort the flowers by species or color) blender (for grinding up petals and berries) strainer (use for berries and fruits) hot water (for mixing and drawing out the dye) glass containers/jars (to pour the paint into) paint brush paper Each plant presented its own challenges when it came to blending. For the fruits and berries, we found that we had to run the initial water-berry blend through a strainer in order to get a less grainy consistency. Overall, our favorite paints came from the California bush sunflower (yellow), an unidentified blue flower (blue), and the natal plum (deep pink/red). Plants sorted into containers by color and species Image by Natalie Plumb Step by Step: Gather all desired plants and fruits from your local environment. (See guidelines above). Sort plants into containers by color or species. For this step, we combined the California bush sunflowers with mustard flowers to make the yellow paint. However, we kept all berries and fruit separate because we were not sure what color pigment each berry would produce. Remove all petals from each flower and stems and leaves from fruits. Place the stem and leaf material in a pile to be used for compost later. For each container/plant: Heat 1/2 cup of water in the microwave for 45 seconds (nearly, but not boiling ). Then pour hot water into the blender. Add the flower petals or berries to the blender. Blend until smooth. For berries/fruits, pour the blended mixture through a strainer into a small bowl to remove all extra grainy material . Pour blended mixture into glass container. Let sit for a few minutes, then you are ready to paint! S tore leftover paint in covered containers in the fridge. Tutorial by Natalie Plumb A Message from Laura: "Just do it! You have no idea what it's going to turn out to be, but even if you're not an artist, like me, it's going to be worth your time just to have the experience of doing it and being able to connect with nature on a little bit of a deeper level." Interview with Laura Tucker about her paint making experience Video and interview by Natalie Plumb Try Another Project Sources: Kleiner, S. Fred. "Gardner's Art Through the Ages: A Concise Western History." Cengage Learning, 2015. Print. "The Chumash People: Materials for Teachers and Students." A Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Docent Project, 1991. Print. "Chumash Ethnobotany: The Chumash, Isla Vista's First Foragers" (IV Ethnobotany Project). https://premeditatedleftovers.com/naturally-frugal-mom/how-to-make-watercolor-paints-from-flower-petals/ Image of "Chumash Painted Cave" by Kristina D.C. Hoeppner, 2011. All other images and video by Natalie Plumb, 2020. Tutorial music: "Upbeat Party" by Scott Holmes. Inspiring & Upbeat Music . Free Music Archive.
- About | Hoelle Lab
Home About Projects CULTIVATING COMMUNITIES About Our Project The Cultivating Communities team on their last day of class getting the rare opportunity to spend the afternoon at the top of Storke Tower, the tallest building on the UCSB campus. From left to right: Kirstin Hensley, Briana Pham , Professor Hoelle, Gavin Robbins Thatcher , Joshua Richardson , Olivia Robért , Logan Snyder, Karma Rhythm , Jack Greenberg , Delcia Orona , Dahlia Shahin, Natalie Plumb , and Donovan Velasquez . Professor Jeffrey Hoelle Jeffrey Hoelle is an environmental anthropologist who studies the ways that people think about and use the environment in the Brazilian Amazon and around the UCSB campus and adjacent community of Isla Vista, California. He works with UCSB students to better understand humans and their relationships with the world that surrounds them, from edible plants to layers of the cultural landscape. In addition to working with students to create the research you see on this site, Hoelle also runs the IV Ethnobotany Project with the help of a talented group of undergraduate and graduate students. This site is part of a "Cultivating Socio-ecological Communities" project that is supported by the 2019 UCSB Sustainability Champion award. Hoelle is no expert in web design; all credit for the construction of this website goes to UCSB anthropology and professional writing student Natalie Plumb.
- The Past, Presence, & Future ... | Hoelle Lab
Home About Projects The Past, Present & Future of Fungi Image by Florian Van Duyn Many people are gripped with mycophobia, or the fear of mushrooms. Mushrooms can be dangerous and many people have died from touching, consuming, or breathing in spores. It is true that mushrooms can be scary, but by being careful and educating yourself there is mushroom for fun! Mushrooms have a deep history and have been used for centuries by ancient civilizations for various purposes. Ancient civilizations have touted mushrooms for their health benefits and go as far to call them, “the Food of the Gods” and “elixir of life ”. Indian tribes in Mexico, prior to the Spanish conquest, used psychedelic mushrooms in religious ceremonies due to their ability to alter thoughts, words, and perceptions . Many civilizations have also used mushrooms medicinally, such as ancient China who used fungi as the best treatment against tumors . These human interactions with mushrooms have been well documented and shown the useful interactions of human and fungi. Past civilizations have proven that mushrooms, despite being intimidating, have an abundance of uses rightfully earn them their title of, “plants of gods”. Mushrooms are slowly but steadily captivating society and have introduced themselves in many aspects of daily life. Climate change is on everyone’s radar and has motivated people to change how they interact with the environment. People are now moving away from meat to reduce their carbon emissions, and are now looking towards mushrooms for solutions. Mushrooms are a great replacement for resource intensive meat products as, “they provide all the essential amino acids for adult requirements; also, mushrooms have higher protein content than most vegetables ” among other nutritional benefits. Quorn, a vegan food brand, uses mycoprotein, a protein derived from fungus, to replicate chicken nuggets, hamburger patties, among other American favorites. Mycoprotein and mushroom production requires little space and resources , so it is a promising replacement for animal products which require an exorbitant amount of energy and is guilt free. The future of fungi has mushroom for growth as there are many uses for fungi yet to be discovered. Mushrooms are making strides medically as there has been a surge of research targeted at anti-tumor mushrooms, which were once used in ancient China . There is also research currently conducted on the use of plastic eating fungi to mitigate the issue of the lifespan of plastics in bodies of water . History has shown the deep connections that human societies have with the famed mushroom. We have foraged, grew, and industrially created them to solve much of life’s ailments and problems. Human interactions with mushrooms have shown the myriad of known and potential uses, showing the socio-ecological bonds that we have forged over time. There is much about the mushroom that has yet to be discovered and mushrooms may have the potential to help us navigate the anthropocene. More About Mushrooms Sources: Valverde ME, Hernández-Pérez T, Paredes-López O. Edible mushrooms: improving human health and promoting quality life. Int J Microbiol. 2015;2015:376387. doi:10.1155/2015/376387 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6044372/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6044372/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4320875/ https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fsufs.2018.00016/full https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6044372/ Brunner, I., Fischer, M., Rüthi, J., Stierli, B., & Frey, B. (2018). Ability of fungi isolated from plastic debris floating in the shoreline of a lake to degrade plastics. Plos One, 13(8). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202047
- About Art | Hoelle Lab
Home About Projects Image from Santa Barbara Independent About Art Cisneros Chumash Elder & Fire Keeper "Art Cisneros is a Chumash elder and firekeeper. He is of Chumash descent on his mother’s side and Mexican descent on his father’s. Though his roots in Santa Barbara County go back tens of thousands of years, Cisneros isn’t focused on the past but rather on the present and the future. Technically retired, he works passionately to unite humanity in caring for “our Mom”: planet Earth. Striving to live up to his Chumash name, “Earth Man with a Good Heart,” he holds fire ceremonies and tells about our need to heal our relationships with ourselves, the Earth, and each other" (Leslee Goodman). Read the Full Profile "The Chumash People are the original native peoples of the central California Coast. Art holds the sacred space for their annual Tomol crossing to Limu on the Channel Islands. His spiritual name means “Earth Man with a Good Heart” and he truly embodies these virtues. Art also speaks throughout the US for the indigenous voice and for those who have no voice. He offers fire ceremonies at his home for the Santa Barbara community and also offers healing and cleansing ceremonies. Cisneros believes that the time is now for all of us to begin the process of restoring the balance of energy. “We can heal each and the world through our willingness to share what we hold as material wealth and what we hold in our heart as love, kindness, compassion, and generosity”. - Tribal Trust Foundation, "About" Art Cisneros Visit Tribal Trust Foundation Back to Ancient Herbs
- Resin Jewelry | Hoelle Lab
How To: Make Resin Jewelry Tutorial with: Sun Room Designs Local IV jewelry company Home About Projects Thanks to social media sites like Pinterest and Instagram, resin jewelry is becoming an incredibly popular way to make your own jewelry. Resin, according to Mixer Direct craft blog, is "a naturally-occurring organic compound that is sourced from plants. It usually consists of noncrystalline, liquid substance that is fusible, making it an effective alternative to plastic and other forms of design." As an alternative to plastic, resin presents artists with a more sustainable way of creating their own jewelry. To learn how to make my own jewelry, I interviewed and filmed the founders of Sun Room Designs, a local jewelry company in Isla Vista. The founders and artists are Amelia Busenhart and Shea Schwennicke, who beachcomb the cliffs of Devereux beach (between Campus Point and Coil Oil Point), collecting beautiful flowers and other plants that they then dip in resin and make into unique, sustainable, and upcycled inspired jewelry. How to Find the Right Plants: Our Isla Vista and UCSB campus coastline is home to a wide variety of plants, including flowers, edible fruits, ferns, and more. All you have to do is get out there and start beachcombing! When you come across beautiful flowers or the perfect ferns to make into resin earrings, you can identify them with the help of the IV Ethnobotany website, which features a map of many of the plant species found in our local environment, or mobile apps such as PlantNet, which identifies plants from pictures you take on your phone. While mobile apps may be somewhat more convenient, the IV Ethnobotany website is far more reliable for accurately identifying plants and allows you to gain your own knolwedge about plant identification. The site was created by Professor Jeoffrey Hoelle and his team of anthropology students. Visit IV Ethnobotany Image from IV Ethnobotany site of sourgrass plant. The yellow flowers seen in the video below are from a sour grass plant. Materials You Will Need: plants you gathered while beachcombing drying agent (can purchase from your local craft store) resin (can purchase from your local craft store) gloves (not necessary, but will help keep your fingers from getting sticky) cups (for pouring the resin into, preferably glass or reusable) tooth picks or nails (for adjusting the plants in the resin) molds (can also reuse bottle caps) earring (the part that connects to the resin and goes through your ear lobe, can purchase at local craft store) Note: Make sure to do this outside or in a well ventilated area to avoid having your house smell like resin. Image by Natalie Plumb Step by Step: Gather flowers while beachcombing. Separate out similar flowers to create a matching pair of earrings. Stir resin in a cup (reusable preferably) for two minutes. Pour resin into molds. Use a toothpick to place the flower in the desired part of the mold. Press down on any parts of the flower/plant that are sticking out of the resin. Let molds dry for 24 hours or until completely hardened. Remove earrings from molds, then connect to earring piece. Enjoy! The Story Behind Sunroom Designs: Amelia Try Another Project Sources: https://www.mixerdirect.com/blogs/mixer-direct-blog/what-is-resin https://ivplants.anth.ucsb.edu/database/interesting Subjects: Amelia Busenhart and Shea Schwennicke
- Chumash Ethnobotany | Hoelle Lab
Home Database Maps Guidelines Engaging Ebot IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT Cultural Landscape: Chumash Ethnobotany The edible IV landscape reflects the people and history it encompasses. It is a diverse cultivated space with Mexican chayote growing alongside Chinese bok choi while gardeners and foragers from different backgrounds plant their familiar varieties and share tips. But the history of the edible landscape is much deeper than today’s student food initiatives or the 70s counterculture gardeners of Tipi Village (see Sueño Orchard ). Each patch of ground is a reflection of IV culture from past to present. Looking out over a seemingly “wild” plot of land, there is a historical timeline: from pre-human to Chumash history, from European contact to today’s global plant diaspora. The California landscape has been used by native groups for as long as it has been populated, an estimated thirteen thousand years ago (Timbrook, 2007). The Chumash of this area used, and still use, the native plants which now grow alongside the diverse array of plant varieties. Our knowledge of native plant use comes from archaeological data and through oral histories passed down through generations and it continues to be studied. Just as eating our landscape allows us to engage with the physical environment in a new way, understanding traditional uses of native plants allows us to engage directly with history and with the people who foraged before us. Click the link below to watch a video recording on our DIY Ethnobotany Classes page about even more plants the Chumash use! DIY Ethnobotany The Chumash, Isla Vista's First Foragers: This stretch of California is incredibly diverse with nearly fifteen hundred plant species native to the Chumash region (Timbrook, 2007). Reflecting this plant diversity, there were over six different Chumash languages spoken, with Barbareño spoken in this area. The Chumash called Isla Vista “Anisq’oyo’,” meaning manzanita (Arctostaphylos), a native shrub-like plant type with edible berries and flowers. Their livelihoods centered largely around gathering wild plants, fishing and hunting (Timbrook, 2007). Though we often think of early native groups as “one with nature”, not changing or impacting but simply living off of the land, in reality, the Chumash actively engaged with and altered their environment, creating a living artifact which continues to be shaped today. When the Spanish arrived in California in 1542 they witnessed “tended gardens rich in wildflowers, edible bulbs, and carefully groomed grasslands” (Gamble, 2008) (Reid, et al. 2009). Though the Chumash didn’t practice agriculture in the manicured, geometric rows we think of today, they promoted growth of useful plants through the use of fire and strategic foraging (Timbrook, 2007). Native Taxonomies: The categories we use to talk about plants are not universal and are, in many cases, arbitrary. By using the “scientific” system of taxonomy, a lens is often created through which we see the world, inhibiting the understanding of local, equally legitimate environmental categories. For example, what is a weed? To us, a weed is any unwanted plant that pops up among our manicured gardens or between sidewalk cracks. There is nothing that makes these unruly plants weeds except for our aversion toward them. Many cultural groups have no word, classification or concept of "weeds." The Chumash people grouped plants in different ways and by different features. By recognizing these categories as not fixed or universal, but relative to the people by which they are used, we can better understand plants from new perspectives. What are "Native Plants" and Why Do We Value Them? There is a tendency to view a stark division between plants that are “native” and “non-native” (introduced) but, like people, plants have moved, blown and grown across boundaries throughout time. It is more beneficial to think of spectrums or timelines of environments and, while some plants listed may have been “introduced,” they have still played important roles for native people. Nonetheless, conservation of those plants with a deep history in the area is essential to knowing and preserving our landscape. According to the UCSC arboretum, one third of California’s native plants are endangered, rare or threatened (2009). This is largely due to overdevelopment of “cultivated” concrete landscapes. The loss of native plants impacts insect and animal populations and affects the ecology as a whole. Promoting diversity of plant environments which include both native and non-native plants helps preserve the timeline of history and ecological health. Chumash Plant Uses: Below are some of the plants used by the Chumash that can be found in Isla Vista and on campus. Visit the map to discover their locations. Walqaqsh , Common Name: Lemonadeberry (Rhus integrifolia ) The fruit of the lemonadeberry was ground, laid to dry in the sun, and eaten. It may also have been made into a drink by being soaked in water (Timbrook, 2007: 166). Khapshikh , Common Name: Sage (Salvia officinalis ) Sage has a variety of medicinal benefits documented to have been used by the Chumash. To remedy night sweats, sage was brewed in water and drunk before sleep or boiled in milk to aid insomnia (Timbrook, 2007: 184). Sage tea was also used to sooth the stomach, cleanse the blood and nervous system, and to alleviate symptoms of anemia, colds and flus. Sto'yots' , Common Name: Ice plant (Carpobrotus edulis ) Ice plant was used by the Chumash but is not a native plant and most likely came from South Africa (Hickman, 1993:128). The Chumash ate the fruit of the ice plant which are “very sweet-tasting and just a little salty” (Timbrook, 2007:50). Mal , Common Name: Mallow (Malva parviflora ) After the arrival of the Spanish and development of the mission agricultural system, many plants were introduced to the area and entered into Chumash use. Mallow were some of the herbaceous plants that snuck in with the agricultural seeds. They were similar to some of the native plants already used by the Chumash (Timbrook, 1984:146). The Chumash used mallow to make strings and also adopted its medicinal uses from the Spanish, making a tea for fevers, inflammation and stomach problems (Timbrook, 2007:121) 'Akhiye'p (Ventureño) , Common Name: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis ) Chumash Name: ‘akhiye’p (Ventureño) The Chumash used Rosemary, introduced by the Spanish, in similar ways to the native plant, woolly blue curls (trichostema lanatum). They would make a tea from the flowers and leaves to aid the stomach or would add the leaves to food for flavoring. The Chumash also used rosemary as a body and hair cleanser. In oral histories, it has been documented that a tea mixture of rosemary and vinegar or wine was used as an abortifacient (Timbrook, 2007:218) Learn More: Visit the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden Find the UCSB Chumash Heritage Garden near the SRB Join the UCSB American Indian & Indigenous Garden Alliance Take a trip to the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Learn from the people themselves at Santa Ynez Chumash Reservation Works Cited: Gamble, L. (2008). The Chumash World at European Contact: Power, Trade and Feasting Among Complex Hunter Gatherers. [online]. California Scholarship Online. Reid, S., Wishingrad, V. and McCabe S., (2009). Plant Uses: California, Santa Cruz. UC Santa Cruz Arboretum. Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Indians, (2009). Santa Ynez Reservation. [online]. Timbrook, J. (1984). Chumash Ethnobotany: A Preliminary Report. Journal of Ethnobiology, Volume 4(2). Timbrook, J. (2007). Chumash Ethnobotany: Plant Knowledge Among the Chumash People of Southern California, Berkeley: Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History.
- Mugwort | Hoelle Lab
Mugwort Traditional Chumash Medicine "Dream Sage" Image by Anton Darius Home About Projects Chumash Elder Art Cisneros demonstrates a quick and easy dialogue with the plant spirit you wish to bring home with you. Video by Olivia Robért at El Capitan Creek, February 2020 While we were walking to the beach Art told me of a dear friend of his, a Chumash medicine woman named Cecelia Garcia who wrote a book with James David Adams, Jr. an Associate Professor of Pharmacology at the University of Southern California. The book was called Healing with Medicinal Plants of the West: Cultural and Scientific Basis for Their Use . In it Cecelia calls mugwort “dream sage”, because it is a powerful spiritual tool for dreamtime, just like sage is a sacred cleansing tool in the waking life. Mugwort has been used for thousands of years all over the world. It is a medicine that has been used for digestion, pain killer, insect repellent, and many others. It is a part of the genus Artemisia, named after Artemis, the Greek goddess of the hunt, wild women, and the moon. There are around 500 species of Artemisia distributed across Asia, Europe, and North America that have a rich history of use as a cultivated sacred plant. The name Mugwort is attributed to its historical use in flavoring drinks, specifically in beer. Mugwort has been used by women historically to stimulate menstruation and to aid unwanted pregnancies, because it acts on the uterus. 12th century texts extensively describe Mugwort as a menstrual tonic, and one 14th century text discusses Mugwort’s use in expelling dead fetal tissue after a miscarriage (Van de Walle 1997). The focus of my research on mugwort is its use for vivid dreams, astral travel, and divination. The reason behind its association with dreams is the psychedelic components present in the plant. “Like its abortive properties, Mugwort’s widespread use as a psychoactive substance is due to a variety of terpene compounds like α- and β- thujones (which also stimulate the heart and the central nervous system) (Alberto-Puleo 1978). Three additional terpene compounds are also found in A. vulgaris leaves, and work synergistically with α- and β- thujones to account for Mugwort’s hypnotic and psychedelic effects.” "Wild Mugwort at El Capitan State Beach" by Olivia Robért Referred to in Russian as “zabytko” which means forgetful, Mugwort’s strong camphor like oils, when inhaled, open up chambers of ancient memory within the brain, bringing one’s dream life stirring visions of past and future that overflow with magical imagery. The symbols which dance through our Mugwort-touched dreams pull out the cobwebs of our forgetfulness and assist us in remembering old, unwritten ways of healing and living that attend to the needs of the spirit and soul”. – Judith Berger, Herbal Rituals This amazing little “weed” can be found growing in watery areas, and likes plenty of sun. If you are a UCSB student, look toward the IV Ethnobotany website to find where it grows around campus and Isla Vista. Visit IV Ethnobotany Drawing Meditation: In a phone interview with Betty Seaman, who trained with Eliot Cowan, author of Plant Spirit Medicine , said one of the best ways to get to know a plant is by spending time sketching it. The process of intent focus on its shape and characteristics will help when trying to dream with it, as well as noting where and how it grows. Ted Talk by Ralph Ammer : "How Drawing Helps You Think" "Mugwort Drawing Meditation" by Olivia Robért Dreamtime and Health: Dream health is considered one of the most important aspects of Chumash culture, but it is something Western society brushes off. The Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung looks at elements of the unconscious as they appear in dreams. The scientific world had begun to remember the knowledge which their ancestors once knew. Mugwort is one of the herbs that can illuminate dreams and bring clarity. Well, this interesting 2012 study goes in depth on the preparation of mugwort to treat anxiety and ADHD in traditional Chumash communities. The recipe for dreams is as follows: “To induce dreams, place the stems and leaves, under a pillow and sleep on the pillow. The fragrance helps with dreaming. When the plant dries, strip the leaves and stuff them into a small pillow. Place this under the regular pillow and continue sleeping on both pillows. This is a traditional use of A. douglasiana especially in very ill or aged people who cannot dream. Dreaming is considered an essential part of life and healing.” The conclusion to this paper, written by James D. Adams at the University of Southern California, says this: “The sedative, antianxiety and dreaming effects of mugwort should be tested in clinical trials. Medicine frequently neglects dreaming as an essential part of healing.” When it comes time to harvest, make sure you are creating a good relationship with the herb. Here is my dear friend Art to show you a way to ask for permission before harvesting. Offering tobacco is traditional, but if you do not have access to it, a coin, strand of hair, water from your head, cornmeal, or even chocolate (if there are no dogs in the area) can make a good gift. The point is to stay in reciprocity with the earth and give something of value in return. “All things enjoy ecstatic union with nature. Life without ecstasy is not true life and not worth living. Without ecstasy the soul becomes shriveled and perverted, the mind becomes corrupt and the body suffers pain. Ecstatic union with nature is necessary for normal health. It is normal for survival.” - Eliot Cowan, Plant Spirit Medicine. Page 29. Learn About Herbs and Immunity Sources: Art Cisneros, Chumash Elder. Cecilia Garcia and James David Adams, Jr. Healing with Medicinal Plants of the West : Cultural and Scientific Basis for their Use . Abedus Press, 2009. Print. https://www.herbrally.com/monographs/mugwort https://sites.evergreen.edu/plantchemeco/mugwort h ttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/271292549_Mugwort_Artemisia_vulgaris_Artemisia_douglasiana_Artemisia_argyi_in_the_Treatment_of_Menopause_Premenstrual_Syndrome_Dysmenorrhea_and_Attention_Deficit_Hyperactivity_Disorder Eliot Cowan. Plant Spirit Medicine . Sounds True, 2014. Print. Judith Berger. Herbal Rituals: Recipes for Everyday Living . St. Martin's Griffin, 1999. Print.
- Woven Wonders | Hoelle Lab
Home Database Maps Guidelines Engaging Ebot IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT DIY: Woven Wonders Plants have more uses than just food! Plants have historically been immensely important for all manner of tools and survival necessities such as water, food, exposure protection, weapons for safety and hunting. You name it, plants can and have probably been made into it. Can you think of any specific examples of plants used as tools? Think back to elementary school and remember how Native Americans used them. Elderberry trees have long, straight, pliable branches that are good for flutes, bows and arrows. Willow is good for friction fire spindles, medicine, and their floofy flowers makes good tinder. Trees are safe havens for food and shelter: you can use branches as a frame and leaves to keep you safe from cold nights and even rain if you make the shelter thick enough. Toyon wood is used for any number of tools, including fishhooks and digging sticks. Cattail, tule, and yucca, as well as other strong, fibrous plants, are really great for weaving. Weaving was a skill of immense importance for people who needed materials such as baskets, nets and mats to survive. The Chumash would even coat their baskets in tar from the beaches to make their baskets watertight. Yucca cordage was also used as a sewing needle with string attached, because the spines are so sharp and narrow and strong that they don’t easily break off. What are some ways you use plants in your daily life? Here’s a quick list off of the top of my head: houses and furniture; food: vegetables, grains, tea, vegetable/olive oil, flavoring; cotton in clothing; paper and books; skin and hair products: perfume, scents, lipstick; fuel: fire to heat the house, fossil fuels; aesthetic landscaping; cultural expression, bouquet of flowers; medicines. Warnings: Keep in mind, flax is toxic if ingested and yucca spines have toxins in them, so avoid stabbing yourself or eating the stalks. Collecting the materials: Please forage respectfully using the guidelines in the tab above. Cut flax, yucca and tule from the base of the stalks. You should keep flax soaking in water if you are going to start weaving more than an hour after you cut the stalks. Preparing the materials: For the best effect, you might want to prepare the flax by scraping a layer off the top of one/both sides of the flax so there is less moisture that will evaporate and shrink the finished design. This takes awhile and I haven’t figured out an efficient way to do it, so I usually don’t. If you have any cool ideas or ways to make your woven creations ‘your own’, please do! You have artistic license to do as you please. Flax Flowers: To make the flax flower, take one full flax leaf with a long stem, the longer the better. Split it down the middle until you reach the tough stem. Peel off the thicker ‘spine’ from the middle where you made the split in the leaf. Split both sides of the leaf into equal sections. Keep splitting until they are smaller than 1cm, stopping at the stem; the smaller the better but also harder to work with. Starting at the left-most section, fold the section under/behind the 2nd section and weave it in an over-under pattern through the rest of the segments. Do this over-under weaving for each of the other segments until you have only 1 left. The last segment is used to ‘turn corners’ to continue with the swirl pattern of the flower. It should also be woven over-under. Continue with this over-under and turning-corner process until the flax is too tapered off to work with easily. If some of the segments end up being thicker than others, it is okay to split them part-way through to make more even segments. Tie off the tapered ends artistically, either by tying in pairs or twisting or putting them through the back. Cordage: Strip two very thin pieces of flax off the main leaf. Tie one end of one piece to one end of the other piece with an overhand knot. Grasp the flax at the knot. Twist the piece on the left twice counterclockwise (toward your body), very tightly. Put the piece on the right over and to the left of the twisted piece (clockwise away from your body). Twist the untwisted piece twice counterclockwise. Repeat until you reach the length of cordage you desire. Tie off at the bottom. If you want thicker cordage, you will need to use many strips of flax, simply splitting those strips into two groups and doing the same process as mentioned above. If you want longer cordage you will need to twist in new flax straps as you move down, preferably not twisting in new pieces at the same time because that will create a bulge and a weak point in your rope. Tule Mats: Lay out 7 evenly sized and shaped stalks. Make sure tule pieces are approximately the same width/thickness along the full length; cut off tapered ends. Bend only the rounded side (if relevant), because the concave side will crack. Weigh down one side of the seven stalks. Weave under-over style 7 other evenly sized and shaped stalks as tightly as possible to make a woven mat with long unwoven edges. Fold the unwoven edges up over themselves and weave them back through to make rounded edges and to finish the mat. Flax Baskets: To make a basket: Lay out 7 evenly sized and shaped leaves. Make sure flax are approximately the same width/thickness along the full length; cut off tapered ends. Weigh down one side of the seven leaves. Weave under-over 7 other evenly sized and shaped leaves as tightly as possible to make a woven mat with long unwoven edges. Fold the unwoven edges up. Take longer leaves (should be the length of the widths of the 14 leaves already used plus 2 ˜ if each leaf is 1 inch wide you want these leaves to be 16 inches long). Weave them between the bent upwards edges. If the leaves aren’t long enough, weave new ones in a couple inches from the ends. End the edges of the basket by folding the ends over and weaving them through the sides and bottom. Sources: An Ethnobotany and Nature Connection unit taught by Kirsten Cook as a project from ENVS 127B Charlie Coupal's Wilderness Survival course http://www.alibrown.co.nz/weaving-a-flax-flower.html http://www.primitiveways.com/tule_mat.html http://teaohou.natlib.govt.nz/journals/teaohou/image/Mao59TeA/Mao59TeA030.html https://www.wikihow.com/Weave-a-Basket
- Engaging Ethnobotany/ Resources | Hoelle Lab
Home Database Maps Guidelines Engaging Ebot Cultivating Communities IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT Engaging Ethnobotany Table of Contents: DIY Learn how to use local plants in creative ways. The DIY section includes a cooking channel, a guide to learning how to weave, plant identification, ethnobotany classes, nature journaling, and scavenger hunts. Cultural Landscape Cultural landscapes are any natural or geographical landscape that is somehow imbued with human cultural meanings, including history, events, buildings, roads, middens, farms, etc. These places are intersections between nature and culture. More Resources Want to learn more about the plants growing around UCSB and Isla Vista? Check out these campus plant resources, cool organizations, and blogs. Here, you can also find additional sources for foraging and plant identification. IV Ebot Instagram Check out the UCSB IV Ethnobotany Project's Instagram account to learn about what edible plants are near UCSB! You can also direct message us plant pics and we will help you identify them. Do It Yourself (DIY) DIY Cooking Channel Delicious Recipes Made with Local Plants Let's Cook! Woven Wonders Learn How to Use Local Plants to Weave and Create Cordage Learn How Plant Identification Learn How to Identify Plants around UCSB and IV Learn How Ebot Classes Explore Past Ethnobotany Classes Learn More Nature Journaling Check Out Videos for How to Nature Journal Learn How Scavenger Hunts Check Out Our Plant & Nature Scavenger Hunts Learn How Cultural Landscape Cultural Landscape Chumash Ebot Check out this article about how Chumash use native plants Learn More Sueño Orchard Check out this article about Sueño Orchard in IV Learn More Food Insecurity Learn more about food insecurity across the world Learn More The Truth About "Weeds" Check this article about useful "weeds" around IV Learn More Eat Your Weeds Check out this zine made by Bailey McKernan about edible weeds. Learn More IV Ethnobotany Instagram Check out the UCSB IV Ethnobotany Project's Instagram account to learn about what edible plants are near UCSB! You can direct message us plant pics and we will help you identify them. Follow our account to keep up to date with all things IV Ethnobotany, including classes, events, projects, and more! View our Profile Instagram More Resources Campus Plant Resources: UCSB Plant Club : email email@example.com to join the mailing list and get involved CCBER's Campus Flora Project : check out what CCBER is doing on campus! CCBER's Exotic Flora Walking Tour : check out some non-native plants on campus! CCBER's Ethnobotanical Walking Tour : check out CCBER's ethnobotanically relevant plants! Cool Organizations: People and Plants : grassroots organizing and policy change Society of Ethnobiology Blogs: Eat the Weeds Beautiful Food Gardening: transforming an ordinary suburban lot into a beautiful edible landscape Foraging and Plant Identification Resources: *We cannot voice for the accuracy of these sites. Remember to check plant identifications against multiple sources and never eat something you are not 100% sure about. See our IV Ethnobotany Foraging Guidelines . Fallen Fruit : experience your city as a fruitful place Dina Fisher : Southern California foraging guide Cal Flora : information on wild California plants Santa Monica Mountains : wildflowers of the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area iNaturalist : plants, animals, and fungi of the Santa Clara River Wild Edible: Learn how to forage safely and sustainably More Resources
- Cooking Channel | Hoelle Lab
Home Database Maps Guidelines Engaging Ebot IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT DIY: Cooking Channel Table of Contents: Blackberry Syrup Early Summer Salad Early Summer Stirfry Foraged Fritters Loquat & Brussel Sprout Salad Loquat Jam Nasturtium Pesto Natal Plum Smoothie Plantain Bite & Sting Remedy Spring Greens Salad Rosemary Shortbread Cookies Blackberry Syrup Ingredients: 2 cups blackberries 1 cup sugar 1 tablespoon lemon juice 1 tablespoon butter (optional) Recipe adapted from All Recipes *Note: I threw in some blueberries as I had them on hand The process of harvesting the blackberries to making them into a syrup was such a fun and rewarding (not to mention delicious) experience! You can use the blackberry syrup on toast, drizzled on waffles, swirled in a drink, and much more! Directions: Add blackberries, sugar, lemon juice, and butter to pot Bring to a boil and boil rapidly for two minutes Mash blackberries to a pulp with a wooden spoon (*Be careful as mixture is very hot!) Strain blackberry syrup to get rid of seeds and make smooth Transfer to container and let cool Enjoy! Blackberry syrup Early Summer Foraged Salad Ingredients: Nasturtium Chickweed Miner's Lettuce Fennel Pineapple Weed Mustard Sour Grass Dandelion Mallow We recommend grabbing a bowl and filling it with foraged flowers and leaves such as the list above in the spring. We did our salad a little late in the year and it was pretty bitter. Once you have your salad base, grab your favorite dressing and toss! Early Summer Foraged Salad Early Summer Foraged Stirfry Ingredients: Nasturtium Wild Radish Mustard Oil Salt We learned a lot from making this stirfry: please forage earlier in the season for all of these plants (Nasturtium, Wild Radish, Mustard) because the later you pick them, the more bitter and tough they will taste. It looks pretty though! Directions: Basically, pick some edible leaves and flowers and seed pods and whatever else you want to throw in. Heat some oil in the pan, toss in the foraged goodies, salt to taste. Early Summer Foraged Stirfry Foraged Fritters We started out by making elderberry flower fritters, but then decided to explore for other edible plants to try in the fritter batter! They were all delicious, but the best was definitely Hummingbird Sage. Get creative with this one! Grab a bunch of edible plants that you think will taste good with sweet dough. Whip up your favorite pancake batter. Heat up some butter or oil on a pan. Then dip your edible plants into the batter and fry away like you would pancakes. Foraged Fritter Loquat & Brussel Sprout Salad Makes 2 servings. This recipe is from a dear friend, Marc Vukcevich! Ingredients: 8 small/medium brussel sprouts 1 medium shallot 6 ripe loquats 5 springs of cilantro 1.5 tsp kosher salt 2 tbsp balsamic vinegar 2 tbsp apple cider vinegar 2 tsp sesame seeds 0.5 tsp freshly ground pepper Directions: Finely chop brussel sprouts into thin shavings Peel and finely dice a shallot From the loquats, remove any twigs or parts that harbor dust/dirt. Cut in half lengthwise and remove the large seeds by finger, knife, or gently squeezing the fruit. Once seeds have been removed, finely dice. *Loquat skins are not as enjoyable as the flesh and can be removed by a prick with a knife and a quick 30 second boil in hot water (process is called a blanche). Remove from the water and let cool. The skins should then be easy to peel. I deemed this step unnecessary for this recipe but may be useful for others. Rough chop the cilantro Combine all ingredients into a bowl. Put in the remaining ingredients and mix thoroughly. Let sit for a few minutes to let the salt and acid penetrate the shredded brussel sprouts and other ingredients. Adjust seasoning according to your preference and enjoy Loquat and Brussel Sprout Loquat Jam Ingredients: 8 cups loquats (seeded and quartered) 4 cups sugar 1 tablespoon lemon juice 0.5 tsp cardamom (optional) *Note: I halved the recipe and added cinnamon instead of cardamom. Directions: Remove stem and bottoms of loquats. Remove the seeds and slice into quarters (remove loquat skins if you would like) Add loquats into a pot and cover with sugar Let the loquats rest for 30 minutes until loquats have released their juice After 30 minutes, add your preferred spice and lemon juice Slowly bring to a boil and cook on low heat for 35-40 minutes, until mixture has thickened and become amber in color At this point you can either blend, mash, or use an immersion blender to puree the mixture into your desired consistency (I used a wooden spoon to mash the mixture. Be careful as the mixture is extremely hot) Transfer to a sterilized container and place in boiling water for 10 minutes Enjoy your jam! I really enjoyed this recipe as it is simple and delicious! Making fruit jams is a perfect way of enjoying your favorite fruit out of its growing season. The jam is delicious on bread but be sure to experiment and see what other creations you can make! I have since used the jam to make a loquat grilled cheese with basil which was extremely tasty! Hope you enjoy this recipe! Loquat Jam Nasturtium Pesto Ingredients: 50 large nasturtium leaves or twice as many if small 0.25 cup pistachios (or favorite nut) 0.5 cup olive oil 0.5 cup parmesan cheese salt and pepper to taste Recipe from Aske the Food Geek Nasturtium is a flowering plant that has edible leaves and stems. Nasturtium can be found on UCSB campus and in Isla Vista, particularly in the Camino Corto Open Space. The leaves and flowers have a peppery taste that adds a great flavor to this pesto. I really enjoyed the taste of this pesto and loved how versatile it is. I do not enjoy the taste of basil pesto, so this is a great alternative you can enjoy! *Note: I used almonds and vegan parmesan cheese for this recipe. You can switch up the type of nut you want to use as this is a very versatile recipe! I also used nasturtium flowers as I wanted to use the whole plant. Directions: Wash and dry the nasturtium flowers and leaves Add nasturtium leaves to blender and blend Add nuts after nasturtium leaves and flowers have been blended Blend completely and then add parmesan cheese and olive oil. Taste and add salt and pepper to your preference Enjoy your finished pesto product! I made pesto pasta with my final product, but you can also spread it on toast or use it for your salads. There are many other uses for nasturtium pesto so go wild and enjoy! Nasturtium Pesto Natal Plum and Banana Smoothie Grab some ripe natal plums, bananas and other fruits, as well as any other smoothie favorites (yogurt, ice cream, ice, honey, protein powder, etc.) Throw all of that into a blender and blend. Then enjoy! Natal Plum and Banana Smoothie Grab some ripe natal plums, bananas and other fruits, as well as any other smoothie favorites (yogurt, ice cream, ice, honey, protein powder, etc.) Throw all of that into a blender and blend. Then enjoy! Natal Plum and Banana Plantain Insect Bite and Bee Sting Remedy Looking for a quick, natural insect bite cure? If you're feeling itchy from an insect bite or bee sting (and you're not overly allergic), try this: Grab some broadleaf plantain, chew it up, and apply it to the bite/sting. This should help reduce swelling and itchiness. I like to keep the chewed up leaf in place with a roll of gauze. WARNING: If your throat is closing up or your whole body is breaking out, please go to the hospital, because this cure is only for locally affected bites and stings. Plantain Spring Greens Salad: Miner's Lettuce, Rosemary, & Stork's Bill Make a tasty salad with wild greens like Miner's Lettuce. Feel free to throw in other greens (nasturtium, chickweed, dandelion, mallow). Season with rosemary and stork's bill and toss with a dressing of your choice. Enjoy! Spring Greens Salad Rosemary Shortbread Cookies Ingredients: 1 1/2 cups butter, softened 2/3 cup white sugar 2 tbsp chopped fresh rosemary 2 3/4 cups all-purpose flour 1/4 tsp salt 2 tsp white sugar for decoration (optional) Directions: Cream room temperature butter with white sugar until light and fluffy Stir in flour, salt, and chopped rosemary until well blended. (The dough is very versatile and you can either roll your dough out until it is 1/4 inch thick and cut into rectangles/shape of your choice or roll the dough into a log and cut into 1/4 inch slices. If you would like to bypass the rolling and shaping process altogether you can instead press the dough in a 9x9 baking pan and bake after resting the dough). Cover and freeze for an hour. (Freezing the dough will make it easier to slice and will better keep its shape while baking). Pre-heat oven to 375 degrees F Line cookie sheets with parchment paper and place cookies 1 inch apart Bake for 10 minutes, or until golden brown around the edges Let cool and enjoy! I really enjoyed this recipe and have made it several times since I first found it. Shortbread cookies are personally one of my favorite cookies as they are so tasty and easy to make (if you have an electric mixer). I thought the addition of rosemary would be odd, but the slight herbal flavor to the buttery cookie was amazing! The cookies themselves are fragrant and sophisticated, making them a perfect gift for a loved one or to eat all by yourself. Rosemary Shortbread