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  • Sueno Orchard | Hoelle Lab

    Home Database Maps Guidelines Engaging Ebot IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT Cultural Landscape: Sueño Orchard Looking down from my balcony across the street from Sueño Orchard, I can see a gorgeous green field, a Garden of Eden in the microcosm of this grungy college world. Only a few days earlier before the first rain of the season, this field was brown and dead, upholding the quirky and “rough around the edges” style of Isla Vista. Low-lying grasses and wild edibles such as dandelions and mallow dominate the scene, punctuated by the fruit trees that give the park its name. A student could eat from this garden year-round for free, although they would most likely need to supplement their diet with a source of protein. Many of these trees are newly planted and still in their early stages of growth. But there are a few, such as the mulberry and pineapple guava that have probably seen more than 30 years, as witnessed by their thick trunks and gnarled branches. Wandering down the uneven isles of trees, I can pick a few out by name because of their recognizable fruits: peaches and nectarines, apples, pomegranates, and guavas. A few others had fruit I did not recognize, so when I saw Joe and Aaron, the hard working Recreation and Parks employees, across the street working on irrigation, I had to ask. They pointed out kumquats, cherimoya, and mulberries; they even named the other trees that had not yet produced fruit this season: several kinds of citrus, pears and mangos, even an almond tree! These two men know their way around a garden and have been making efforts to plant native flowers to help local pollinators. They work in parks all throughout Santa Barbara County and are very friendly. You could talk about plants or life, and either way they will tell you something interesting. I would recommend stopping to chat for awhile, they might even offer to take you surfing! The roots of the park are as eclectic as the space itself. In the 60’s and 70’s, Isla Vista was home to over 60 tipis1 . With the UCSB student population rising and rent prices following suit, tipis became a common sight. In the late 70’s, a culmination of tipis on a lot across from what is now Sueño Orchard became known as "Tipi Village”1 . Villagers lived an alternative, counter-culture lifestyle, growing and eating food from organic community gardens. Tipi Village was ultimately shut down in 1979 but the sentiment toward organic gardening and community growing remained. Sueño Orchard began in the 1980’s, shortly after the disbanding of Tipi Village2 ,3 . Today, it consists of about 36 fruit trees and locals grow their own plots nearby, many of which have been passed down through generations. If the free fruit and history hasn’t sold you, think of the dogs! Every day you can see dogs playing between the trees. There is a family who has been around since the orchard began with two golden retrievers, a family with several pups that gathers and sings Christian music on the weekends for the whole street to hear, and of course all of the local IV dogs that students bring into the equation including the many dogs that frequent my apartment complex. Like many tucked away or forgotten places in Isla Vista, Sueño Orchard is a hidden gem. Sueño, meaning “dream” in Spanish, is a wonderful name for the orchard as it exists as not only the dream of fresh fruit, but the potential for a community-centered, edible environment. Sueño Orchard encourages engagement not only with the physical space, but with broader ideas of urban environments, food access and sustainability. It represents a history of community and involvement with the land. Take a walk to Sueño Orchard, eat its fruit and join its legacy. Works Cited: Loca l Wiki: Tipi Village Isla Vista Recreation & Park District Daily Nexus: Sueno Orchard

  • How to Beachcomb Responsibly | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects MPA/No Take Zone Open Zone Map made by Natalie Plumb How To: Beachcomb Responsibly Before You Go: Know the Protected Areas Before you set out on your beachcombing adventures, make sure to identify where exactly you will be beachcombing because some areas of our coastline are classified as "Marine Protected Areas" (MPA's). While these areas are great places to enjoy the beach, see amazing wildlife, and visit the tidepools, it is ILLEGAL to remove any natural materials from these areas. You can use the map above to figure out the best place for your beachcombing experience based on what you are trying to accomplish. As a general guideline, try to only take man-made materials such as sea glass or trash from the beach. What You Will Need: Bucket, jar, or bag for collecting your beachcombing treasures a camera or phone for taking photos and identifying shells, plants, and animals When to Go: The best time to beachcomb is at low tide, which is when the greatest amount of sand is visible and you are more likely to find treasures. When is Low Tide? Marine Protected Areas: Campus Point MPA: The area between Campus Point and Coil Oil Point, which includes Devereux Beach, is classified as an MPA. As an MPA, this expanse of the coastline (shaded in red) is a "No Take" zone, meaning that it is illegal to remove any natural materials from these areas, including rocks, animals, shells, plants, sand, or seaweed (Santa Barbara Channel Keeper). However, this area is the perfect place to find sea glass, which is a man-made material and therefore not included in MPA regulations. Additionally, the area along Devereux and Sands Beach is often littered with man-made "trash." Some of this trash can be re-purposed into useful pieces of art. For example, one day while beachcombing, my friends and I stumbled across a broken old Wavestorm surfboard. While perfect for beginning surfers, these surfboards are made entirely from Styrofoam , which is harmful to our coastal environment. In order to prevent the Styrofoam from polluting the ocean, we decided to bring it home with us, sand it down, and make it into the perfect portable picnic/camping table. ​ What you can take: only man-made materials such as sea glass and "trash" What must stay: all natural materials (shells, animals, rocks, plants, etc.) Activities you can enjoy: (rentals available through UCSB Excursion Club or UCSB Adventure Programs) Kayaking Surfing Stand up paddle boarding snorkeling walks on the beach beach clean-ups Photograph by Marco Mazza MPA's Open Area Open Zone: Anacapa Beach: The area between Campus Point and Goleta Pier, which includes Anacapa Beach, is not part of any MPA. As an "Open Zone", this expanse of the coastline (shaded in blue) is the only area along the UCSB and Isla Vista coastline where you can collect natural materials such as seashells and rocks. However, if you do decide to take shells from this area, first make sure that it is not currently serving as the home to any sea creature. You do not want to take home a beautiful shell only to discover that there was a hermit crab or sea mollusk living inside, which is now stinking up your room. To determine whether a shell is safe or not to take, follow these simple steps: Only take from the sand, not in the water. Turn the shell over in your hand and look to see if there is anything inside. Usually, if something is living inside the shell, you will be able to see a small hermit crab claw or the bottom of the mollusk. However, some smaller creatures are not immediately visible, so make sure to wait a few seconds to allow time for any small organisms to emerge. ​ What you can take: shells, rocks, plants, and man-made materials What must stay: all living animals (check shells before taking them) Photograph by Marco Mazza Try A Project Sources: https://www.sbck.org/current-issues/marine-conservation/marine-protected-areas/explore-your-mpa/campus-point-mpa-profile/ https://ucnrs.org/reserves/coal-oil-point-natural-reserve/ https://copr.nrs.ucsb.edu/ https://www.tide-forecast.com/locations/Goleta/tides/latest Images by Marco Mazza

  • Growing Your Own Mushrooms! | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects Growing Your Own Edible Mushrooms Image by Jaap Straydog Researching human interactions with mushrooms put me in the mood to grow my own! I purchased two mushroom kits from different brands, Dave’s Mushrooms on Amazon and Back to the Roots, and watched them grow! I felt it was important that not only do I talk about human connection to nature through mushroom education and research, but actually through growing and consuming my own mushrooms. I’ve documented my thoughts and feelings during the process and to determine where the source of my own mycophobia stems from. ​ First impression: Both kits were intimidating. I did not want to touch them too much as I feared that I would become ill from breathing in the spores, a definitely irrational fear. I had to cut the plastic cover to begin watering the substrate and caught a glimpse of what the mushrooms would be growing on. It was slightly terrifying. Pre-growth: I had to mist both kits daily with purified water and keep them in indirect light. At first I feared that the kit was not working as I am extremely impatient and was hoping for results within 2 days. I diligently watered the mushrooms until I saw results. First day of growth: I first noticed a fluffy, white blob in the center of the mushroom log. I did not know what it was until I saw a small brown cap, the beginnings of the mushroom! It was an exciting moment, to say the least. I came back later in the day and was surprised by the growth. The small caps had begun protruding from the center of the log. Second day of growth : The mushrooms were more well deformed and had begun resembling little stems. They were finally looking like mushrooms! Third day of growth: The mushrooms were huge! They began to have stable caps that fanned out and had visible gills. I showed all my housemates the growth and as I was so amazed! This project was doing so much better than I had expected! Fourth day of growth: The mushrooms had stopped growing, or were growing so slow I didn’t notice. The mushrooms had sprouted from every possible space and had grown into each other. I then harvested the mushrooms and cooked them! One concern of mine was how to tell if the mushrooms were ready to harvest. I looked at many guides to determine the right time to harvest. It was intimidating ripping my oyster mushrooms from their home, but I had to do it. Try this Delicious Recipe: Pan Fried Oyster Mushroom & Green Onion a few of the oyster mushrooms a pinch of salt 1 bunch of green onions 2 cloves of garlic 1 tablespoon of sesame oil Ingredients: Directions: heat up the sesame oil on low heat chop up green onions, garlic, and oyster mushroom toss green onion and garlic into hot pan and cook until fragrant add oyster mushroom and cook until brown and crispy Though simple, this recipe turned out delicious! The mushrooms were chewy and tasted great! The texture was almost like meat as it was slightly tough and chewy. I was slightly scared of using mushrooms that I grew to cook with, but they turned out amazing! I will definitely make this recipe as it turned out so well and is so simple! More About Mushrooms Sources: Valverde ME, Hernández-Pérez T, Paredes-López O. Edible mushrooms: improving human health and promoting quality life. Int J Microbiol. 2015;2015:376387. doi:10.1155/2015/376387 (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/wong/BOT135/Lect20b.htm Blagodatski A, Yatsunskaya M, Mikhailova V, Tiasto V, Kagansky A, Katanaev VL. Medicinal mushrooms as an attractive new source of natural compounds for future cancer therapy. Oncotarget. 2018;9(49):29259–29274. Published 2018 Jun 26. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.25660 Ritchie, Hannah, Reay, S., D., Higgins, & Peter. (2018, April 23). Potential of Meat Substitutes for ClimateChange Mitigation and Improved Human Health in High-Income Markets. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fsufs.2018.00016/full Kowalski, K. (2019, December 3). Recycling the dead. Retrieved from https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/recycling-dead L. Hauben, personal communication, February 29 2020

  • Cooking on Lo Heat | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects Sustainable and Flavorful Food Practices within Isla Vista By Logan Snyder Within this three part series, I will guide you through the processes of gardening and foraging within Isla Vista, along with easy, flavorful, and sustainable recipes that you can cook. "Jamming Out" Foraging and Jam-Making in Isla Vista View Recipe "Simple Sustainability" Gardening, Pickling, and T acos from Scratch View Recipe Chumash Appreciation Acorn Dumpling Stew and Chia Lemonade View Recipe Recipes About Logan: I hope you enjoyed the shows! My goal for this series was to provide Isla Vista residents and anyone who comes across the page with some easy ways of interacting with the environment and creating good food out of what you find and buy. I learned to cook through a range of YouTube channels, at Barbareno (a local farm-to-table restaurant in downtown Santa Barbara), and from side by side tutorials from my family while I grew up. Food has always been a passion of mine, and I hope to inspire others to love cooking as much as I do. Logan Snyder Cultural anthropology student, UCSB

  • S’axpilil | Hoelle Lab

    Image by Edewaa Foster Home About Projects S'axpilil: Twin Lakes Golf Course One of, if not the most important Chumash sites in the area was known as S’axpilil which translates to ‘roots’. The significance of this name likely comes from the sheer size of this village and the ways most Chumash of the area can trace their lineage back to this place. While not necessarily the ancestral home of the Barbareño Chumash, S’axpilil was held in high regard by residents of the Goleta Valley. Some records show this site being referred to as Mexcaltitan by the Spanish rather than the site of Helo’, or that it was an alias for the village. Another similarity to Helo’ is the high number of chiefs or capitanes that occupied this area. Today, this site is found in the general region of the Twin Lakes Golf Course just north of the airport. Had at least 4 capitanes or lineage heads similar to Helo'. 1769 Portola Expedition: The only rancheria in Goleta actually visited. Came unarmed and brought the explorers much fish and mush, likely acorns. 1787 January 24, 4 children from here became the first Goleta people to join new community at Santa Barbara. 1798 October 17-18, a large social gathering was held and many native peoples from the Santa Ynez rancherias likely for the fall harvest ceremony. 1788 Approximately, referred to by Fr. Fermín Francisco de Lasuén as ‘San Gabriel de Saspilil’ and confused with ‘San Rafael’ but this name, like the others he assigned to the Goleta towns, would not last very long. 1812 Major earthquake destroyed San Miguel Chapel. 1803 Chapels dedicated to San Miguel and San Francisco built. 1824 Juan Fructuoso Suluajinasu died during the Chumash Uprising of 1824. Fr. Crespí on Chumash soc: Houses so large they easily house 60 people, with beds off of the floor. At all these towns they have well crafted flutes/pipes to use for dancing with large feathered headdresses and thick body paint. 1834 Governor José Figueroa led the process for full secularization of Mission Santa Barbara. TODAY The site of what was formerly known as S’axpilil is under the current ownership of Twin Lakes Golf Course on Hollister Avenue. Image by Edewaa Foster Back to the Map Sources: Johnson, John R. “The Rancherias of Mescaltitan: Chumash History and Sociopolitical Organization in the Goleta Valley.” GOLETA SLOUGH PREHISTORY: Insights Gained from a Vanishing Archaeological Record, vol. 4, SANTA BARBARA MUS OF NAT, 2020, pp. 17–51. Contributions in Anthropology. (https://mail.google.com/mail/u/1/#inbox?projector=1 )

  • Mushroom for Fun | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects By Briana Pham Delve into the World of Mushrooms Mushrooms are mysterious organisms known for their occasional psychedelic qualities and their tendency to kill, but there is more to these fanciful fungi than shown. Humans have interacted with mushrooms for centuries to cure ailments, alter perceptions, and speak to the gods. Though fungi may be fearsome, there is much to learn from interactions that I chanterelle you about. The Past, Present, & Future of Fungi Learn More Why Should You Give a Shiitake About Mushrooms? Learn More Morels of Mushroom Foraging Learn More Growing Your Own Mushrooms! Learn More More About Mushrooms Meet the Researcher: I’m Briana, a fourth year Environmental Studies major and minor in Spatial Studies. I love everything that’s related to the environment, but specifically sustainability within food systems. I also really like succulents! Briana Pham Environmental and Spatial studies student, UCSB ES

  • About Art | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects Image from Santa Barbara Independent About Art Cisneros Chumash Elder & Fire Keeper "Art Cisneros is a Chumash elder and firekeeper. He is of Chumash descent on his mother’s side and Mexican descent on his father’s. Though his roots in Santa Barbara County go back tens of thousands of years, Cisneros isn’t focused on the past but rather on the present and the future. Technically retired, he works passionately to unite humanity in caring for “our Mom”: planet Earth. Striving to live up to his Chumash name, “Earth Man with a Good Heart,” he holds fire ceremonies and tells about our need to heal our relationships with ourselves, the Earth, and each other" (Leslee Goodman). Read the Full Profile "The Chumash People are the original native peoples of the central California Coast. Art holds the sacred space for their annual Tomol crossing to Limu on the Channel Islands. His spiritual name means “Earth Man with a Good Heart” and he truly embodies these virtues. Art also speaks throughout the US for the indigenous voice and for those who have no voice. He offers fire ceremonies at his home for the Santa Barbara community and also offers healing and cleansing ceremonies. Cisneros believes that the time is now for all of us to begin the process of restoring the balance of energy. “We can heal each and the world through our willingness to share what we hold as material wealth and what we hold in our heart as love, kindness, compassion, and generosity”. ​ - Tribal Trust Foundation, "About" Art Cisneros Visit Tribal Trust Foundation Back to Ancient Herbs

  • Cultivating Communities | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects CULTIVATING COMMUNITIES 1/1 Explore Our Projects About Cultivating Communities Welcome to Cultivating Communities! This site is for students and community members to learn more about the fascinating environment that we now know as UCSB and Isla Vista. By learning more about this place, its fascinating history and possibilities for engaging with nature, we hope to facilitate deeper forms of engagement with the environment. Check out the visual timeline below of UCSB from 1928 to 2015 to begin your journey into understanding our very own cultural landscape. This site is the product of UCSB students working with Anthropology and Environmental Studies Professor Jeffrey Hoelle. Learn More 1928 1938 2015 1928 1/10 "A Decade-by-Decade View of UCSB Campus:" 1928-2015 Special Research Collections, UCSB Library, University of California Santa Barbara 1938 1956 1971 1994 2007 1928 1947 1961 1980 2001 Contact Us We will be in touch as soon as possible! Submit

  • Plant Identification | Hoelle Lab

    Home Database Maps Guidelines Engaging Ebot IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT DIY: Plant Identification Want to get better at identifying plants? Or do you have a plant you want to learn more about, but don't know it's name? We have some resources for you! ​ If you have a little extra time, click the link below to explore our DIY Ethnobotany Classes page. There you can see a full recording and slideshow of a 25 minute class on Plant Identification. It is more detailed than the video below. DIY Ethnobotany If you're in a hurry, check out this super short video Kirsten did about plant identification. This way you can learn how to identify plants that aren't on our website! It was also posted on UCSB Adventure Program's Instagram page.

  • Process | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects A Glimpse Into Our Film Making Process Skateboarding offers the exploration of our planet’s giant cities, small towns, rural neighborhoods, sewer ditches, empty spillways, all of which often offer a botanical experience unique to its own. Growing up in the San Francisco Bay Area, the filmmakers had endless territory to navigate and explore, and making this project brought them both back to those fond memories of trekking miles, spot to spot, seeking out those features of an environment often overlooked by a common passerby. “We only get one shot! Gav you got this? Camera recording? Alright, action!” The gap lies ahead and just beside an active new restaurant doorway in Isla Vista, the new owners are not fond of skateboarders and therefore our visit must be quick. Slash a curb, air a gap, carve a bank, push as if fire ignites wherever your foot hits next. Skateboarders are liberated by their four wheels, eight bearrings, and seven ply decks. To them, this tool allows for endless endeavors, seeking out the new pavement being poured that day in the urban sprawl, or even by chance the ripening fruit overhanging a community sidewalk. The way a skateboarder sees the world is not like most. The curve of a painted curb, the slope and uprooted sidewalk, the hill that stares you in your soul and makes you hold on to that self made confidence. With predatory birds overhead looking down at you while you look down at the pebble you just slammed on, which has now led to face the ground in which your eyes open to an overlooked element of these cityscapes, the cracks that harbor life. Fallen, but will still get back up, continue on and converse with the environment through gyrating momentum and having a grand time with or without your crew. Meet the Filmmakers

  • Food Insecurity | Hoelle Lab

    Home Database Maps Guidelines Engaging Ebot IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT Cultural Landscape: Food Insecurity The purpose of this article is to address Food Insecurity, educate about it, and provide resources to combat food insecurity. Facts: Food insecurity is a major public health problem and environmental justice issue all over the world. About 27% of the people on Earth are regularly or constantly without reliable, affordable, nutritious or sufficient food. Something to consider is: human food production systems produce plenty of food for everyone on the planet, but due to distribution problems, excess food from areas that overproduce is wasted instead of given to the needy. ​ Now, you may be thinking: “What? Not possible! We live in America.” Right you are--We are in America. But our catchphrase is “Land of the Free” not “Land where people aren’t nutritionally deprived.” About 12.3% of US residents are food insecure. The graphic below shows the average food insecurity by US county. The darker the color, the higher the percentage of households experiencing food insecurity. You might still argue: “Ok, but California is different.” Wrong. Especially in the less economically secure areas, food insecurity is rampant. I created the map below using ARCGIS software and public data. This graphic shows the relation between poverty and food insecurity in California (and Nevada). The shaded yellow to orange to red gradient for the counties show average food insecurity (the darker the color, the higher percentage). The purple circles show poverty (the larger the circle, the greater percentage). You might also futilely say: “All that being said, there can’t be UCSB students who are hungry. It’s one of the best public universities in the world.” Wrong again! 48% of UCSB undergraduates report being food insecure: 1.8 times greater than the world average. ​ ​ Causes and Effects: Causes of food insecurity are many and can be convoluted. They also vary greatly from country to country and household to household. The main causes are political instability, economic system, environmental instability, gender and international relations, with poverty as an underlying cause or effect of all of these. Civil war, poor food distribution, lack of viable agricultural land, poor food production, drought, advertisement of cheap and unhealthy foods, low wages, and easy access to cheap and unhealthy food, all influence these causes. ​ The effects of food insecurity are less variable by place and situation, as they all boil down to effects of nutrition deprivation. These include: developmental complications in youth and babies that lead to trouble focusing and succeeding in educational environments, higher levels of emotional and behavioral problems, increased probability of chronic diseases, and more susceptibility to illness and hospitalization; increased need for medical care that leads to high healthcare costs; starvation; the need to make sacrifices, tradeoffs and hard decisions such as underusing medication and medical care, or choosing to pay the water bill instead of filling the pantry. ​ I created the Causal Model below. Everything to the left of the Food Insecurity box are causes, and everything to the right are effects. Potential Solutions: I believe that food insecurity is solvable and that we should be doing more as a society and species to address this problem. As an environmental studies major and private citizen who studies ethnobotany, I think there are many ways to fix the issue or augment the programs that are already in place to do so. There are some things that can be done at government levels, such as amending or creating new laws and regulations surrounding food waste, food distribution, food sovereignty, sustainability of food systems and more. I’m not here to talk about that, though, because there are also things that can be done at a local level, such as this website (see the resources below for Food Security efforts local to UCSB). Resources : Calendar of Prepared Meals and Food Distribution Services in Isla Vista UCSB CalFresh Advocates and Benefits Isla Vista Food Cooperative UCSB Food, Nutrition, and Basic Skills Program AS Food Bank Miramar Food Pantry UCSB Basic Needs and Resources Guide to Some Basic Needs Resources

  • Chumash Ethnobotany | Hoelle Lab

    Home Database Maps Guidelines Engaging Ebot IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT Cultural Landscape: Chumash Ethnobotany The edible IV landscape reflects the people and history it encompasses. It is a diverse cultivated space with Mexican chayote growing alongside Chinese bok choi while gardeners and foragers from different backgrounds plant their familiar varieties and share tips. But the history of the edible landscape is much deeper than today’s student food initiatives or the 70s counterculture gardeners of Tipi Village (see Sueño Orchard ). Each patch of ground is a reflection of IV culture from past to present. Looking out over a seemingly “wild” plot of land, there is a historical timeline: from pre-human to Chumash history, from European contact to today’s global plant diaspora. The California landscape has been used by native groups for as long as it has been populated, an estimated thirteen thousand years ago (Timbrook, 2007). The Chumash of this area used, and still use, the native plants which now grow alongside the diverse array of plant varieties. Our knowledge of native plant use comes from archaeological data and through oral histories passed down through generations and it continues to be studied. Just as eating our landscape allows us to engage with the physical environment in a new way, understanding traditional uses of native plants allows us to engage directly with history and with the people who foraged before us. Click the link below to watch a video recording on our DIY Ethnobotany Classes page about even more plants the Chumash use! DIY Ethnobotany The Chumash, Isla Vista's First Foragers: This stretch of California is incredibly diverse with nearly fifteen hundred plant species native to the Chumash region (Timbrook, 2007). Reflecting this plant diversity, there were over six different Chumash languages spoken, with Barbareño spoken in this area. The Chumash called Isla Vista “Anisq’oyo’,” meaning manzanita (Arctostaphylos), a native shrub-like plant type with edible berries and flowers. Their livelihoods centered largely around gathering wild plants, fishing and hunting (Timbrook, 2007). Though we often think of early native groups as “one with nature”, not changing or impacting but simply living off of the land, in reality, the Chumash actively engaged with and altered their environment, creating a living artifact which continues to be shaped today. When the Spanish arrived in California in 1542 they witnessed “tended gardens rich in wildflowers, edible bulbs, and carefully groomed grasslands” (Gamble, 2008) (Reid, et al. 2009). Though the Chumash didn’t practice agriculture in the manicured, geometric rows we think of today, they promoted growth of useful plants through the use of fire and strategic foraging (Timbrook, 2007). Native Taxonomies: The categories we use to talk about plants are not universal and are, in many cases, arbitrary. By using the “scientific” system of taxonomy, a lens is often created through which we see the world, inhibiting the understanding of local, equally legitimate environmental categories. For example, what is a weed? To us, a weed is any unwanted plant that pops up among our manicured gardens or between sidewalk cracks. There is nothing that makes these unruly plants weeds except for our aversion toward them. Many cultural groups have no word, classification or concept of "weeds." The Chumash people grouped plants in different ways and by different features. By recognizing these categories as not fixed or universal, but relative to the people by which they are used, we can better understand plants from new perspectives. ​ What are "Native Plants" and Why Do We Value Them? There is a tendency to view a stark division between plants that are “native” and “non-native” (introduced) but, like people, plants have moved, blown and grown across boundaries throughout time. It is more beneficial to think of spectrums or timelines of environments and, while some plants listed may have been “introduced,” they have still played important roles for native people. Nonetheless, conservation of those plants with a deep history in the area is essential to knowing and preserving our landscape. According to the UCSC arboretum, one third of California’s native plants are endangered, rare or threatened (2009). This is largely due to overdevelopment of “cultivated” concrete landscapes. The loss of native plants impacts insect and animal populations and affects the ecology as a whole. Promoting diversity of plant environments which include both native and non-native plants helps preserve the timeline of history and ecological health. ​ Chumash Plant Uses: Below are some of the plants used by the Chumash that can be found in Isla Vista and on campus. Visit the map to discover their locations. Walqaqsh , Common Name: Lemonadeberry (Rhus integrifolia ) The fruit of the lemonadeberry was ground, laid to dry in the sun, and eaten. It may also have been made into a drink by being soaked in water (Timbrook, 2007: 166). ​ Khapshikh , Common Name: Sage (Salvia officinalis ) Sage has a variety of medicinal benefits documented to have been used by the Chumash. To remedy night sweats, sage was brewed in water and drunk before sleep or boiled in milk to aid insomnia (Timbrook, 2007: 184). Sage tea was also used to sooth the stomach, cleanse the blood and nervous system, and to alleviate symptoms of anemia, colds and flus. ​ Sto'yots' , Common Name: Ice plant (Carpobrotus edulis ) Ice plant was used by the Chumash but is not a native plant and most likely came from South Africa (Hickman, 1993:128). The Chumash ate the fruit of the ice plant which are “very sweet-tasting and just a little salty” (Timbrook, 2007:50). ​ Mal , Common Name: Mallow (Malva parviflora ) After the arrival of the Spanish and development of the mission agricultural system, many plants were introduced to the area and entered into Chumash use. Mallow were some of the herbaceous plants that snuck in with the agricultural seeds. They were similar to some of the native plants already used by the Chumash (Timbrook, 1984:146). The Chumash used mallow to make strings and also adopted its medicinal uses from the Spanish, making a tea for fevers, inflammation and stomach problems (Timbrook, 2007:121) ​ 'Akhiye'p (Ventureño) , Common Name: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis ) Chumash Name: ‘akhiye’p (Ventureño) The Chumash used Rosemary, introduced by the Spanish, in similar ways to the native plant, woolly blue curls (trichostema lanatum). They would make a tea from the flowers and leaves to aid the stomach or would add the leaves to food for flavoring. The Chumash also used rosemary as a body and hair cleanser. In oral histories, it has been documented that a tea mixture of rosemary and vinegar or wine was used as an abortifacient (Timbrook, 2007:218) Learn More: Visit the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden Find the UCSB Chumash Heritage Garden near the SRB Join the UCSB American Indian & Indigenous Garden Alliance Take a trip to the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Learn from the people themselves at Santa Ynez Chumash Reservation Works Cited: Gamble, L. (2008). The Chumash World at European Contact: Power, Trade and Feasting Among Complex Hunter Gatherers. [online]. California Scholarship Online. ​ Reid, S., Wishingrad, V. and McCabe S., (2009). Plant Uses: California, Santa Cruz. UC Santa Cruz Arboretum. ​ Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Indians, (2009). Santa Ynez Reservation. [online]. ​ Timbrook, J. (1984). Chumash Ethnobotany: A Preliminary Report. Journal of Ethnobiology, Volume 4(2). ​ Timbrook, J. (2007). Chumash Ethnobotany: Plant Knowledge Among the Chumash People of Southern California, Berkeley: Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History.

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