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  • Karma Ch 3 | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects Image by Karma Rhythm Chapter 3: Where to Get Sustainable Resources So I did a little research and came across some interesting resources that I think will help anybody who is interested in gardening locally. ​ First off, Island Seed and Feed is our local organic garden-supply and pet-supply shop. They are located in Goleta and are very established, having served the community with knowledge and organic products since the late 80’s. ​ At the local Farmer’s Market, farmers sell their homegrown products at these gatherings and most fruits come equipped with a seed. Most farmers are not selling seeds outright. Sometimes specialized seeds or heritage seeds are sold by collectors. The Santa Barbara Farmers Market sets up shop in Goleta on Sundays from 10am to 2pm. ​ Stores like our local Dollar Tree can provide more affordable options for students, though these options may be less sustainable. It is important to consider any store bought seeds have been delivered to stores and are less sustainable than seeds cultivated locally. This consideration can apply to more specialized stores as well, but I think it is especially important to consider when buying supplies from larger chain stores. These seeds may be lower quality than those found at specialty shops as well, or may be mass produced. ​ Manure is an important resource and is available to students who garden at the GHGP. Manure is useful because it contains lots of nutrients like nitrogen which enrich the soil and encourage growth once absorbed. According to GardeningKnowHow, only certain types of manures are appropriate for garden fertilization, mainly cow, horse, chicken, sheep and rabbit. There is also some very nutritious soil available to students who garden at the GHGP, which is hand mixed by the expert botanists at CCBER on site. It is important to ask them initially before just taking the soil though, as there are two piles and the other pile contains their best soil they use in some of their local restoration efforts. Visit Island Seed & Feed Visit the Farmers Market Read Chapter 4 Sources: Gardening KnowHow: Gardening KnowHow Gardening KnowHow Old Farmer’s Almanac

  • Publications | Hoelle Lab

    Publications Quantifying Cultural Values Associated with Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon (2018) . Journal of Land Use Science. ​ This study analyzes the distribution of cultural values associated with forest and non-forest landscapes among stakeholder groups shaping land use and land cover change (LULCC) in an agricultural/forest frontier in the western Brazilian Amazon. The study addresses theoretical and methodological obstacles to the integration of cultural data and social science research into the study of LULCC, providing simple, systematic, and more accurate ways of understanding this missing feature of land change. Read Full Article From Contested to "Green" Frontiers in the Amazon? A Long-Term Analysis of São Félix do Xingu, Brazil. Marianne Schmink, Jeffrey Hoelle, Carlos Valério A. Gomes & Gregory M. Thaler (2017). Journal of Peasant Studies. This contribution deploys a historical political ecology framework to analyze how decades of agrarian frontier change and land conflicts among actors on the ground in São Félix do Xingu, Brazil interacted with shifting national policy debates. Nearly a half-decade of field research in São Félix is combined with data from a 2014 field "revisit" to situate the current "greening" of policy and discourse within the longer term history of frontier development, revealing positive social and environmental developments and persistent contradictions and uncertainties. Read Full Article Jungle Beef: Consumption, Production and Destruction, and the Development Process in the Brazilian Amazon (2017). Journal of Political Ecology 24: 743-762. ​ In the western Amazon state of Acre, Brazil, increasing beef consumption is directly lined with local cattle production and environmental destruction, providing an opportunity to examine the relationships between these processes in a developing context. Interviews, participant-observation, and a standardized survey provide data on perceptions of beef and meat preferences, and how these relate to practices and patterns of consumption among a range of groups, from urban environmentalists to beef-loving cowboys. The results reveal how the hierarchical ordering of foods, with beef at the top, maps onto similar hierarchies of status and class, as well as notions of strength and nutrition. Read Full Article Tenure Diversity and Dependent Causation in the Effects of Regional Integration on Land Use: Evaluating the Evolutionary Theory of Land Rights in Acre, Brazil. Stephen G. Perz, Jeffrey Hoelle, Karla Rocha, Veronica Passos, Flavia Leite, Julia Cortes, Lucas Araujo Carvalho & Grenville Barnes (2017). Journal of Land Use Science 12(4). ​ In the present analysis, we focus on whether land tenure type modifies the effects of highway infrastructure on key outcomes highlighted in the ETLR framework. We take up the case of rural settlements along the Inter-Oceanic Highway in the eastern part of the Brazilian state of Acre, where there is considerable land tenure diversity. Findings from multivariate models for land titling, the castanha nut harvest and cattle pasture all indicate that the effects of infrastructure depend on land tenure type. These results confirm the importance of dependent causation behind land use and bear implications for theory on land change, infrastructure impacts, and land system science. Read Full Article Gold Glimmers in the Amazon. Jeffrey Hoelle, Michael Klingler and Peter Richards (2016). Sapiens . ​ For centuries, explorers have searched the Amazon for treasures. Today, gold lures thousands who dream of finding their own fortunes, or at least a better life. This photo essay examines how the daily life in the remote gold-mining camps of the Amazonian rainforest is difficult, dirty, and sometimes treacherous. But that's only part of the story. Read Full Article Brazil's Thriving Soy Industry Threatens Its Forests and Global Climate Targets. Jeffrey Hoelle and Peter Richards (2016). The Conversation . ​ Brazil's economy is teetering on the edge of collapse. The country's political regime has been rocked by recent corruption scandals, and impeachment proceedings are encircling the nation's leaders. And yet things couldn't be much better for Brazil's soybean farmers. Read Full Article Rainforest Cowboys: The Rise of Ranching and Cattle Culture in Western Amazonia (2015). Austin: University of Texas Press . ​ This ambitious interdisciplinary study is the first to examine the interlinked economic uses and cultural practices and beliefs surrounding cattle in Western Amazonia, where cattle raising is at the center of debates about economic development and environmental conservation. Click the link below to read the full text, reviews, and more. Read More Trans-boundary Infrastructure and Changes in Rural Livelihood Diversity in the Southwestern Amazon: Resilience and Inequality. Perz, Stephen G., Flavia L. Leite, Lauren N. Griffin, Jeffrey Hoelle, Martha Rosero, Lucas Araujo Carvalho, Jorge Castillo, and Daniel Rojas (2015). Sustainability 7(9). ​ Infrastructure has long been a priority in development policy, but there is debate over infrastructure impacts. Whereas economic studies show reductions in poverty, social research has documented growing income inequality. We suggest that a focus on livelihoods permits a bridge between the two literatures by highlighting decisions by households that may capture economic benefits but also yield social inequalities. We therefore take up two questions. First is whether new infrastructure allows households to diversify their livelihoods, where diversity begets resilience and thus affords livelihood sustainability. Second is whether households with more diverse livelihoods exhibit greater increases in livelihood diversity, which would widen livelihood inequalities. Read Full Article Cattle Culture in the Brazilian Amazon (2014). Human Organization 73(4). ​ This paper examines “cattle culture”—the positive cultural constructions associated with cattle raising and analyzes the paths that brought it to one of the “greenest” corners of Amazonia. In the western Amazon state of Acre, Brazil, the rubber tapper movement protested the arrival of cattle ranching in the 1980s, capturing worldwide attention with a message of sustainable forest-based development. Across Amazonia, groups who once opposed or were displaced by cattle are now adopting it—including Acrean rubber tappers and colonists. Drawing on primary data collected among rural and urban groups in Acre, I explain how cattle culture emerged in a state with a short and contested history with cattle raising. I focus specifically on the relationship between the cattle economy and cattle culture through analysis of three processes: local subsistence practices resulting in symbolic associations; the diffusion of market-oriented ranching and the dominant cauboi (cowboy) culture, and the ways that the two overlap and are negotiated among Acrean groups. Read Full Article Forest Citizenship in Acre, Brazil. Marianne Schmink, Amy Duchelle, Jeffrey Hoelle, Flavia Marcus Vinicio d'Oliveira, Jacqueline Vadjunec, Judson Valentim, Richard Wallace (2014). Forest Under Pressure: Local Responses to Global Issues . ​ The sections in this chapter trace the innovations in laws, institutions, public administration, and policy to promote forest-based development, alongside the opening of policy-making to citizen input. Data presented from government reports outlining policies, supplemented by available empirical research, show impressive gains in stabilizing deforestation, expanding forest production, and favourable but uneven socio-economic impacts of the state’s forest development programs. The chapter documents the successes in transformative institutional and policy development at the state level, remaining challenges, and lessons learned in Acre for potential application of sustainable development policies over the long term. Read Full Article Trans-boundary Infrastructure, Access Connectivity, and Household Land Use in a Tri-national Frontier in the Southwestern Amazon. Perz, Stephen, Andrea Birgit Chavez, Rosa Cossio, Jeffrey Hoelle, Flavia L. Leite, Karla Rocha, Rafael O. Rojas, Alexander Shenkin, Lucas Araujo Carvalho, Jorge Castillo & Daniel Rojas Cespedes (2014). Journal of Land Use Science . ​ We take up the case of the Inter-Oceanic Highway, a trans-boundary road being paved in the trinational ‘MAP’ frontier of the southwestern Amazon. We draw on a tri-national survey of households in rural communities across the MAP frontier to evaluate the effects of access connectivity on land use. At the time of fieldwork, paving was complete in Acre/Brazil, underway in Madre de Dios/Peru, and planned in Pando/Bolivia. This permits a tri-national comparative analysis. The results confirm different effects of access connectivity on land use by paving status; further, they also document crossborder processes stemming from trans-boundary infrastructure that affect land use. The findings call for more attention to the impacts of regional integration initiatives on landscapes. Read Full Article Black Hats and Smooth Hands: Social Class, Environmentalism, and Work Among the Ranchers of Acre, Brazil (2012). Anthropology of Work Review 33(2). ​ The objective of this paper is to increase our understanding of this enigmatic, powerful group through an ethnographic description of ranchers in relation to features of their villain label: elite status and environmental destruction. Drawing on 18 months of fieldwork with Acrean ranchers and other rural groups, I analyze the ways in which the ranchers conform to and challenge classification as an elite group in relation to economic and political power, describe how rancher status is constructed and expressed in social situations, and compare the extent to which other rural social groups agree with perceptions of the ranchers. Understanding the ranchers’ perspective, especially with regard to environmental debates, requires an examination of how they perceive their work in relation to history and ideology, and how they have adapted the term to defend their interests and engage current political debates centered on environmental preservation. ​ Winner of Eric Wolf Student Paper Prize, Society of Anthropology of Work, AAA ; Reprinted in Open Anthropology 3(1), "Hello Anthropecene Climate Change and Anthropology" (2015). Read Full Article Regional Integration and Local Change: Road Paving, Community Connectivity, and Social-Ecological Resilience in a Tri-national Frontier, Southwestern Amazonia. Perz, Stephen, Liliana Cabrera, Lucas Araujo Carvalho, Jorge Castillo, Rosmery Chacacanta, Rosa E. Cossio, Yeni Franco Solano, Jeffrey Hoelle, Leonor Mercedes Perales, Israel Puerta, Daniel Rojas Cespedes, Rojas Camacho, Adao Costa Silva (2012). Regional Environmental Change . ​ We suggest a more integrative approach to regional integration by appropriating the concepts of connectivity from transport geography and social–ecological resilience from systems ecology. Connectivity offers a means of observing the degree of integration between locations, and social–ecological resilience provides a framework to simultaneously consider multiple consequences of regional integration. Together, they offer a spatial analysis of resilience that considers multiple dimensions of infrastructure impacts. Our study case is the southwestern Amazon, a highly biodiverse region which is experiencing integration via paving of the Inter-Oceanic Highway. Read Full Article Convergence of Cattle: Political Ecology, Social Group Perceptions, and Socioeconomic Relationships in Acre, Brazil (2011). Culture, Agriculture, and, Food and Environment 33(2). ​ Cattle raising is currently the leading cause of deforestation in Amazonia, and an increasingly appealing and profitable way for a growing number of smallholders to make a living in the western Amazon state of Acre, Brazil. The Acrean rubber tapper social movement contested the arrival of cattle ranchers in the 1970s and 1980s, but cattle raising has expanded among smallholder groups, including the rubber tappers, over the past 20 years. Building on the legacy of political–economic analyses of Amazonian cattle raising, this study argues for an expanded view of cattle raising by incorporating perspectives on the cultural constructions surrounding cattle and intergroup socioeconomic relationships. Data obtained from surveys and participant observation are used to examine the factors that have contributed to the expansion of cattle raising across three Acrean groups, each historically distinguished by their unique forms of livelihood and associated identities: forest extractivist rubber tappers, agricultural colonists, and large-scale ranchers. It is argued that three factors have contributed to the growth of cattle ranching among these groups: political and economic shifts, which have made agricultural and extractive livelihoods less competitive with cattle raising; the spread of positive cultural views surrounding cattle raising; and the transition of intergroup relationships from conflict to cooperation in the cattle industry. ​ Winner of Robert Netting Student Paper Prize, Culture and Agriculture Section, AAA . Read Full Article Postcards from the Amazon (February - September 2010). San Angelo Standard-Times . ​ During my final year of dissertation research in Acre, Brazil I decided that I wanted to share my experiences with the people of my hometown in San Angelo, Texas. I asked the editors of the San Angelo Standard-Times if I could write a column about life in the Amazon and they agreed. Every two weeks I emailed a short story from Acre and these were published in print and online on Sundays in the column entitled "Postcards from the Amazon." The articles reflected my research interests in environment and cattle, but I also used this as a chance to write about Brazilian life and culture more broadly, touching on topics such as soccer, churrasco, saudade, and the days-long experience of riding a bus from Sao Paulo to Acre. Check out the e-book below to read through my postcards from the amazon. Cattle move along the highway in Acre, Brazil. Read Full Article

  • About | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects CULTIVATING COMMUNITIES About Our Project The Cultivating Communities team on their last day of class getting the rare opportunity to spend the afternoon at the top of Storke Tower, the tallest building on the UCSB campus. From left to right: Kirstin Hensley, Briana Pham , Professor Hoelle, Gavin Robbins Thatcher , Joshua Richardson , Olivia Robért , Logan Snyder, Karma Rhythm , Jack Greenberg , Delcia Orona , Dahlia Shahin, Natalie Plumb , and Donovan Velasquez . Professor Jeffrey Hoelle Jeffrey Hoelle is an environmental anthropologist who studies the ways that people think about and use the environment in the Brazilian Amazon and around the UCSB campus and adjacent community of Isla Vista, California. He works with UCSB students to better understand humans and their relationships with the world that surrounds them, from edible plants to layers of the cultural landscape. In addition to working with students to create the research you see on this site, Hoelle also runs the IV Ethnobotany Project with the help of a talented group of undergraduate and graduate students. This site is part of a "Cultivating Socio-ecological Communities" project that is supported by the 2019 UCSB Sustainability Champion award. Hoelle is no expert in web design; all credit for the construction of this website goes to UCSB anthropology and professional writing student Natalie Plumb.

  • Resin Jewelry | Hoelle Lab

    How To: Make Resin Jewelry Tutorial with: Sun Room Designs Local IV jewelry company Home About Projects Thanks to social media sites like Pinterest and Instagram, resin jewelry is becoming an incredibly popular way to make your own jewelry. Resin, according to Mixer Direct craft blog, is "a naturally-occurring organic compound that is sourced from plants. It usually consists of noncrystalline, liquid substance that is fusible, making it an effective alternative to plastic and other forms of design." As an alternative to plastic, resin presents artists with a more sustainable way of creating their own jewelry. To learn how to make my own jewelry, I interviewed and filmed the founders of Sun Room Designs, a local jewelry company in Isla Vista. The founders and artists are Amelia Busenhart and Shea Schwennicke, who beachcomb the cliffs of Devereux beach (between Campus Point and Coil Oil Point), collecting beautiful flowers and other plants that they then dip in resin and make into unique, sustainable, and upcycled inspired jewelry. How to Find the Right Plants: Our Isla Vista and UCSB campus coastline is home to a wide variety of plants, including flowers, edible fruits, ferns, and more. All you have to do is get out there and start beachcombing! When you come across beautiful flowers or the perfect ferns to make into resin earrings, you can identify them with the help of the IV Ethnobotany website, which features a map of many of the plant species found in our local environment, or mobile apps such as PlantNet, which identifies plants from pictures you take on your phone. While mobile apps may be somewhat more convenient, the IV Ethnobotany website is far more reliable for accurately identifying plants and allows you to gain your own knolwedge about plant identification. The site was created by Professor Jeoffrey Hoelle and his team of anthropology students. Visit IV Ethnobotany Image from IV Ethnobotany site of sourgrass plant. The yellow flowers seen in the video below are from a sour grass plant. Materials You Will Need: plants you gathered while beachcombing drying agent (can purchase from your local craft store) resin (can purchase from your local craft store) gloves (not necessary, but will help keep your fingers from getting sticky) cups (for pouring the resin into, preferably glass or reusable) tooth picks or nails (for adjusting the plants in the resin) molds (can also reuse bottle caps) earring (the part that connects to the resin and goes through your ear lobe, can purchase at local craft store) ​ ​ Note: Make sure to do this outside or in a well ventilated area to avoid having your house smell like resin. Image by Natalie Plumb Step by Step: Gather flowers while beachcombing. Separate out similar flowers to create a matching pair of earrings. Stir resin in a cup (reusable preferably) for two minutes. Pour resin into molds. Use a toothpick to place the flower in the desired part of the mold. Press down on any parts of the flower/plant that are sticking out of the resin. Let molds dry for 24 hours or until completely hardened. Remove earrings from molds, then connect to earring piece. Enjoy! The Story Behind Sunroom Designs: Amelia Try Another Project Sources: Subjects: Amelia Busenhart and Shea Schwennicke

  • Before We Take | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects Before We Take On the Importance of Reciprocity: All Flourishing is Mutual Image by Daniel Mingook Kim On a beautifully sunny day in Santa Barbara, I met Art Cisneros at El Capitan State beach for lunch and a discussion about the natural world. We were here last weekend at this very place for a fire ceremony in which we made offerings to the fire and gathered in community to share wisdom and connection. We began our walk to the beach from El Capitan State resort, which led us to a shaded pathway into the trees and past the creek. We heard the frogs singing and Art shared with me a Chumash frog song. Immersed in nature and Storytelling, we walked toward the ocean. While we were walking and I was listening to his stories, I couldn’t help seeing the friendly faces of Mugwort wherever we walked. Their pointed leaves and clusters of green sprouted up and called out to me to be noticed. Mugwort is called “Dream Sage” by Chumash Medicine Woman Cecelia Garcia . It is a powerful ally for Dreamtime. Click the Mugwort icon at the bottom of the page to read more about her. Wait--did you just refer to a plant as “her”? And what is this about Mugwort’s “faces”? First, let me introduce you to Dr. Robin Wall Kimmerer, author of Braiding Sweetgrass: Indigenous Wisdom, Scientific Knowledge, and the Teachings of Plants . She explains it better than I could: “Our toddlers speak of plants and animals as if they were people, extending to themself and intention and compassion---until we teach them not to. We quickly retrain them and make them forget. When we tell them that the tree is not a who, but in it, we make that maple an object; we put a barrier between us, absolving ourselves of moral responsibility and opening the door to exploitation. Saying it makes a living land into natural resources. If a maple is an it, we can take up the chainsaw. If a maple is a her, we think twice.” ​ - Pg. 57 of Braiding Sweetgrass by Robin Wall Kimmerer Art Cisneros discusses repiprocity. Video by Olivia Robért at El Capitan Creek, February 2020 More About Mugwort In my relating to the natural world, I choose to see all other living entities as the “more than human”, “stone beings”, “plant people”, in the way that my indigenous teachers have taught me. In the following pages, you can explore how modern medicine like Aspirin came from indigenous knowledge, how to make tinctures and infusions, and how to keep your immune system strong during flu season, through the use of natural plant medicine that has existed for thousands of years. But first, we need to talk about Reciprocity. Don’t just take my word for it, listen to our elder, Art, as he talks about the importance of repaying our debt and exchanging with the natural world when taking something from Mother Earth. “The essence of the gift is that it creates a set of relationships. The currency of a gift economy is, at its root, reciprocity. In western thinking, private land is understood to be a 'bundle of rights,' whereas in a gift economy property has a 'bundle of responsibilities' attached." ​ - Pg. 28 of Braiding Sweetgrass by Robin Wall Kimmerer These responsibilities are the ones we humans have inherited from the earth. To live in a good way we must ask before we take, do not take more than we need, and to always give something in return. “It is human perception that makes the world a gift. When we view the world this way, strawberries and humans alike are transformed. The relationship of gratitude and reciprocity thus developed can increase the evolutionary fitness of both plant and animal. A species and a culture that treat the natural world with respect and reciprocity will surely pass on genes to ensuring generations with a higher frequency than the people who destroy it. The stories we choose to shape our behaviors have adaptive consequences. Louis Hyde has made extensive studies of gift economies. He finds that 'objects… will remain plentiful because they are treated as gifts.' A gift relationship with nature is a 'formal give-and-take that acknowledges our participation in, independence on, natural increase. We tend to respond to nature as a part of ourselves, not a stranger or alien available for exploitation. Gift exchange is the commerce of choice, for it is commerce that harmonizes with, or participates in, the process of [nature’s] increase.’” ​ - Pg. 30 of Braiding Sweetgrass by Robin Wall Kimmerer Sources: Cecilia Garcia, Chumash Medicine Woman: Art Cisneros, Chumash Elder Dr. Robin Wall Kimmerer. Braiding Sweetgrass: Indigenous Wisdom, Scientific Knowledge, and the Teachings of Plants. Milkweed Editions, 2015. Print.

  • Growing Your Own Mushrooms! | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects Growing Your Own Edible Mushrooms Image by Jaap Straydog Researching human interactions with mushrooms put me in the mood to grow my own! I purchased two mushroom kits from different brands, Dave’s Mushrooms on Amazon and Back to the Roots, and watched them grow! I felt it was important that not only do I talk about human connection to nature through mushroom education and research, but actually through growing and consuming my own mushrooms. I’ve documented my thoughts and feelings during the process and to determine where the source of my own mycophobia stems from. ​ First impression: Both kits were intimidating. I did not want to touch them too much as I feared that I would become ill from breathing in the spores, a definitely irrational fear. I had to cut the plastic cover to begin watering the substrate and caught a glimpse of what the mushrooms would be growing on. It was slightly terrifying. Pre-growth: I had to mist both kits daily with purified water and keep them in indirect light. At first I feared that the kit was not working as I am extremely impatient and was hoping for results within 2 days. I diligently watered the mushrooms until I saw results. First day of growth: I first noticed a fluffy, white blob in the center of the mushroom log. I did not know what it was until I saw a small brown cap, the beginnings of the mushroom! It was an exciting moment, to say the least. I came back later in the day and was surprised by the growth. The small caps had begun protruding from the center of the log. Second day of growth : The mushrooms were more well deformed and had begun resembling little stems. They were finally looking like mushrooms! Third day of growth: The mushrooms were huge! They began to have stable caps that fanned out and had visible gills. I showed all my housemates the growth and as I was so amazed! This project was doing so much better than I had expected! Fourth day of growth: The mushrooms had stopped growing, or were growing so slow I didn’t notice. The mushrooms had sprouted from every possible space and had grown into each other. I then harvested the mushrooms and cooked them! One concern of mine was how to tell if the mushrooms were ready to harvest. I looked at many guides to determine the right time to harvest. It was intimidating ripping my oyster mushrooms from their home, but I had to do it. Try this Delicious Recipe: Pan Fried Oyster Mushroom & Green Onion a few of the oyster mushrooms a pinch of salt 1 bunch of green onions 2 cloves of garlic 1 tablespoon of sesame oil Ingredients: Directions: heat up the sesame oil on low heat chop up green onions, garlic, and oyster mushroom toss green onion and garlic into hot pan and cook until fragrant add oyster mushroom and cook until brown and crispy Though simple, this recipe turned out delicious! The mushrooms were chewy and tasted great! The texture was almost like meat as it was slightly tough and chewy. I was slightly scared of using mushrooms that I grew to cook with, but they turned out amazing! I will definitely make this recipe as it turned out so well and is so simple! More About Mushrooms Sources: Valverde ME, Hernández-Pérez T, Paredes-López O. Edible mushrooms: improving human health and promoting quality life. Int J Microbiol. 2015;2015:376387. doi:10.1155/2015/376387 (n.d.). Retrieved from Blagodatski A, Yatsunskaya M, Mikhailova V, Tiasto V, Kagansky A, Katanaev VL. Medicinal mushrooms as an attractive new source of natural compounds for future cancer therapy. Oncotarget. 2018;9(49):29259–29274. Published 2018 Jun 26. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.25660 Ritchie, Hannah, Reay, S., D., Higgins, & Peter. (2018, April 23). Potential of Meat Substitutes for ClimateChange Mitigation and Improved Human Health in High-Income Markets. Retrieved from Kowalski, K. (2019, December 3). Recycling the dead. Retrieved from L. Hauben, personal communication, February 29 2020

  • Projects | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects CULTIVATING COMMUNITIES Student Projects By Donovan Velasquez In order to truly understand the cultural landscape of our Isla Vista and UCSB home, we must first learn about the first peoples of Goleta Valley, the Chumash. Navigate this interactive map to discover timelines all about the hidden historical past. Explore By Logan Snyder Within this three part series, I will guide you through the processes of gardening and foraging within Isla Vista, along with easy, flavorful, and sustainable recipes that you can cook at home. Explore By Natalie Plumb I will take you step by step through how to sustainably beachcomb for materials you can use to make your own watercolor paints, resin jewelry, and a seaglass mosaic picture frame. Explore By Olivia Robért With the help of Chumash elder, Art Cisneros, I will introduce you to the world of medicinal herbs. Here, you can learn about the importance of reciprocity and the benefits of mugwort and elderberry. Explore By Delcia Orona Join me in an exploration of the traces present across Isla Vista and the UCSB campus. Through this collection, we can begin to recognize the commonly unseen or forgotten, and reimagine our influence on the environment. Explore By Jack Greenberg & Gavin Robbins Thatcher Embark on a cinematic journey that follows local Isla Vistan and avid skater, Dmitry, as he transverses the cultural landscape of Isla Vista on his way to watch the sunset. Along the way, he meets other locals who share valuable ecological knowledge with him. Explore By Briana Pham My project will teach you about the fantastic world of mushrooms, from mushroom history and uses, to how to sustainably forage, to how to grow your own mushrooms at home! Explore By Joshua Richardson My article will help you consider the ethical implications of each of our interactions with the local environment; how we affect the environment, but also, how the environment affects us. Explore By Karma Rhythm This project serves two purposes, to tell my story, as well as to entice, encourage, and provide knowledge which will facilitate any other Isla Vistans who are interested in gardening, or even just getting more in touch with nature. Explore

  • Maps | Hoelle Lab

    Home Database Maps Guidelines Engaging Ebot Cultivating Communities IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT Maps of Plants Around UCSB and Isla Vista BEFORE YOU FORAGE: Please enjoy educating your taste buds, but PLEASE DO NOT take any unnecessary risks if you are unsure about a plant and check out our Foraging Guidelines before you interact with any plants. In addition, many plants on this page are NOT edible, so please pay special attention to the map labels and descriptions below to determine which plants are edible and which ones are not. Edible, Useful, and Medicinal Plants This map contains the locations and names of edible, medicinal, and useful plants we have identified on the UCSB campus. Please pay close attention to plant species names and listed locations and acquaint yourself with the descriptions and information provided in the Plant Database section before collecting. Please do not take any risks if you are unsure about a plant, and use your own common sense when locating and collecting plants. Be sure to check listed information to ensure correct location and identification of edible plants, and remember to clean your fruit with potable water before consumption! Map Key: Edible Raw Useful and Edible Edible AFTER Preparation Useful but NOT Edible Medicinal A Good Place to Find Uncultivated Plants To see what is seasonally available, click on the box in the upper left corner of the map below. Then select the season that you want to find food in! Fascinating Flora This map contains the locations of interesting, gorgeous, dangerous and strange plants on campus. To find descriptions and other information about each of these, check out our Fascinating Flora Database . Map Key: Strangely Structured Stems Particularly Pulchritudinous Plants Flamboyant Phloem Facts Delectably Dangerous Dicots

  • Lab News | Hoelle Lab

    Featured News March 2, 2021 Jeffrey Hoelle and Nicholas Kawa argue that centering the Anthropocene on Homo sapiens limits our understanding of the environment "More than Human" by Jim Logan. UCSB Current . October 14, 2020 Graduate Student, Jordan Thomas, Publishes Op-ed in LA Times: "The New Line of Attack on Climate Science in the Age of Megafires ." Spring, 2020 Cultivating Communities Website Published Features research created by students in ANTH 197JH, Winter 2020. Includes work on Chumash place names surrounding UCSB and other topics related to local human environment interactions. August 23, 2020 "That Anthro Podcast Shines a Spotlight on UCSB Anthropology Department" Article in the Daily Nexus mentions Professor Jeffrey Hoelle and That Anthro Podcast August 5, 2020 "Cattle Culture in Amazonia with Dr. Jeffrey Hoelle" Gabriella Campbell interviews Professor Hoelle on That Anthro Podcast July 28, 2020 "Amazon Land Grabbers are Destroying Brazil Nut Groves for Cattle Pasture" Fabiano Maisonnave draws on Hoelle's research to explain deforestation in Amazonia in Climate Home News. July 9, 2020 "The Next Trend in Food: Edible Insects" UC system news page picks up Mackenzie Wade and Hoelle's article about edible insects. July 2, 2020 "Plugged Into Bugs" UCSB Current press release for article published by graduate student M. Wade and Hoelle. May 27, 2020 "UC Santa Barbara Campus Sustainability Champion: Jeffrey Hoelle" UCSB Sustainability Newsletter includes interview with Hoelle on his "Sustainability Champion" award and how his focus on "cultivating socio-ecological communities" relates to research and teaching in Isla Vista. Spring, 2020 "Gardening and Foraging in Isla Vista" Word magazine issue 40 focuses on IV Ethnobotany Project, a site run by students under Hoelle's supervision, which encourages appreciation for ecological knowledge and local social and environmental histories. May 6, 2020 "Brave New Online World" UCSB Current profile of innovating teaching practices following shift to remote teaching, focusing on Hoelle and other UCSB professors. January 27, 2020 "Shearing Gaia: The Cultivation of Land and Body Covers in the Brazilian Amazon" Announcement of invited lecture at Cambridge Latin American Studies Open Seminar. December 20, 2019 "Humans in 2019: From Discoveries to Disasters" Article in Sapiens anthropology magazine by Nicola Jones includes Hoelle's op-ed on Amazonian fires. October, 2019 "The Brazilian Development Agenda Driving Amazon Devastation" Article in The Lancet Planetary Health by Mat Hope based on interview with Hoelle on Amazonian destruction and fires. August 28, 2019 "American Anthropological Association Tweet" American Anthropological Association (AAA) tweet mentions LA Times op-ed by Hoelle about Amazonian fires. August 27, 2019 "Chart of the Day: The Amazon is Burning, But Not Everyone Cares" Article in Mother Jones quotes Hoelle's op-ed in LA Times . August 28, 2019 "Local Anthropology Professor and Animal Planet Host Share Their Thoughts on Amazon Fires" KEYT News includes Hoelle interview on the topic of Amazonian fires. April 6, 2019 "Coverage of Agrocultures Conference and Hoelle's Presentation" Coverage of Agrocultures Conference and Hoelle's presentation in Leticia, Columbia on Amazonia Lattitude website. December 21, 2018 "Brazil's Amazon Forest is in the Crosshairs, as Defenders Step Up" National Geographic article by Andrew Revkin includes interview with Hoelle. November 3, 2018 "Ex-reduto do PT, Acre da a Jair Bolsonaro major votacao relativa" Folha de Sao Paulo , the largest newspaper in Brazil quotes Hoelle on the surprising outcome in Brazilian presidential elections and the shift in Acre, which had previously voted for the Worker's Party. News Archive

  • The Ethics of Enjoying Isla V... | Hoelle Lab

    The Trusted Ethnographic Source for UCSB and Isla Vista Monday, March 16, 2020 - ANTH JH Winter 2020 Home About Projects The Ethics of Enjoying Isla Vista Photograph by Alan Mak , Sept. 3, 2005 The tree on the sign is the `Isla Vista Tree,' which stood at the edge of Sea Lookout Park at on El Colegio. The tree fell off the edge of the bluff, and now there is only a plaque to commemorate it. The log of this tree recurs in a number of the community building efforts for Isla Vista. By Joshua Richardson March 16, 2020 The natural world around us exists as one of UCSB’s and Isla Vista’s biggest features. From the lawns, bushes, and trees on UCSB’s campus to its parks like Anisq’Oyo’ and the Sueño Orchard; even areas of environmental conservation like the North Campus and Camino Corto Open Spaces, each of these places are home to different types of plants, animals, and have different purposes for their existence. ​ At the beginning of my time here at UCSB, I found myself wondering what my place in the environment is. I love going for walks and exploring the world around me. I even started using the Ethnobotany Projects ’ plant database and map to help me find edible plants and medicinal herbs to make going outdoors even more fun. But, even with all my time spent exploring, I found myself wondering more about the needs and purposes behind the creations and maintenance of each place I went to. How is it that our use of these parks and open spaces, even possibly just being in them, is affecting them? How could they, in turn, be affecting us? To answer these questions, I reached out to a few of their caretakers to better understand our role in the environment and the things that I, and others, can do to help them continue to thrive. Photograph by Joshua Richardson The Sueno Orchard The parks in Isla Vista are arguably the most visual and prominent green, open spaces around us. They exist on almost every block and are not very difficult to find. With such easy access to them, people use them for a wide range of recreational activities like picnics, yoga, or even taking a nice stroll on a sunny afternoon. To learn more about them, and what work goes into taking care of them, I spoke with Joe from the Isla Vista Parks and Recreation Department at the Sueño Orchard. By Isla Vista Parks and Recreation Department During our conversation, it became clear to me Joe is very passionate about the landscape around him and for helping it thrive. When I asked him if there were any negative ways that people engage with the parks, Joe’s expression darkened. He told me that there are people who come to the parks, with the intention of helping the caretakers like himself, who ‘tend’ to the plants by pruning them. He pointed out a macadamia tree at the Orchard, that had actually been damaged overnight by a Good Samaritan who took it upon themselves to trim away some of the leaves and branches of the tree, exposing its bark to the sunlight. While it looked like a normal, average tree to someone inexperienced in gardening like myself, Joe told me that the tree was not meant to be this way. Macadamia trees, he said, like to have their bark shaded and protected from the sunlight, but that shade was taken from it when they took its branches. He cares for each individual plant as much as he does for the park as a whole, each of them making up the park itself and what it has to offer to the community. He hopes that people will come and make use of the Orchard, its fruits and disc course, and other parks in Isla Vista freely and openly, keeping in mind that there are limits to how much fruit one should take. Photograph by Joshua Richardson The Sueno Orchard Photograph by Joshua Richardson ​ The North Campus Open Space Other open places in the environment, like the North Campus Open Space (NCOS) have different types of nature and exists for different reasons. While it is open to the public like the parks of Isla Vista, its purpose is entirely different as a place of environmental conservation. The NCOS is home to an array of different plants and animals, some of which are being reintroduced to the area to restore it to its former state, from before it was converted into a golf course. Filled with signs that inform guests about climate change, environmental conservation efforts being made, and trail routes, the NCOS gives guests beautiful views and allows them to learn more about the environment and biodiversity of the Devereux Lagoon. To learn more about the NCOS, I spoke with Wayne Chapman from the Cheadle Center for Biodiversity & Ecological Restoration (CCBER) about the efforts that he and CCBER are making to conserve and protect the plants and animals that call the NCOS home. Photograph by Joshua Richardson Wayne, similar to Joe, told me that he likes seeing people out in the NCOS, jogging on the trails and that they do it often. One of his biggest concerns, though, was people’s tendencies to bring their pets along with them, taking them off of their leash when they do. With its population of wildlife growing anew, the open space is still a sensitive habitat where some animals may not feel entirely comfortable there yet. One such animal is the burrowing owl who, Wayne says, has taken up a temporary residence in the area. While Wayne and other caretakers from CCBER would love to see the owl re-establish the NCOS as its breeding ground, Wayne worries that dogs and stray cats may ruin the chances of that happening. “Taking your dog off of its leash,” he said, “makes the animal think that there is a large predator roaming around. What kind of animal would want to build a home and have its young in a place it feels unsafe?” Statistics from CCBER’s website show that 13% of NCOS visitors surveyed visit with their dogs, but one of the primary concerns recognized by all survey respondents was dogs being off-leash (33%). It poses a real threat to the conservation efforts when dogs dig holes, chase after animals, or bark loudly in sensitive habitat areas. The NCOS has different needs as a space, asking that we be mindful and respectful of the plants and animals that take residence there and that we use it as a place of reflection and learning. Whereas the parks in Isla Vista can be a place of active recreation, allowing for us to run, have picnics, let our dogs be a bit freer in their exploration, and even play disc golf, the NCOS is a place of passive recreation. We venture into the NCOS, but it is not a place to set up a picnic or allow our dogs to roam freely. As my interview with Wayne and research on the CCBER website show, it is a place to observe and learn, but not to disturb. Photograph by Joshua Richardson The UCSB Lawn, University Center Fidel’s first warning to anyone who uses the lawns or forages to fruit is simple: recycled water. As a result of California’s drought in 2014, the Goleta Sanitation District (as well as other cities throughout the state) have applied and been permitted to treat and create recycled water for distribution to places like UCSB. The State Water Board , the government organization that creates the guidelines for recycled water use, defines recycled water as “… water which, as a result of treatment of waste, is suitable for a direct beneficial use or a controlled use that… is therefore considered a valuable resource.” Fidel made it clear to me that it is important to be careful and wary of this water; to look out for any pipes, drains, or sprinklers that are purple because they contain recycled water which, if consumed, could make me sick. Section 2.3 of the Goleta Water Guidelines for the installation and implementation of recycled water pipelines requires that all piping be covered or made in the color purple to distinguish them from other water pipes and sprinklers. Their guidelines also require that recycled water not be allowed to runoff from where it is dispersed, be over sprayed, and that it should not be left to pool in the soil for over 60 minutes. Fidel confirmed this to me, telling me that any recycled water systems run on an automatic timer that usually only allows recycled water to be sprayed at night. Any place on university grounds that uses recycled water for irrigation should contain either pipes and drains that are marked in purple, signs that warn caution due to the use of recycled water, or both. By keeping an eye out for the color purple and any recycled water signs, you can greatly reduce the risk of consuming plants that have been irrigated with recycled water. Photographs by Joshua Richardson Caution: Evidence of Recycled Water ​ Another topic I asked Fidel about was UCSB’s use of pesticides and other chemicals on the grounds that could possibly contaminate some of the fruits available for foraging. He told me that, to his knowledge, the grounds are not sprayed often with pesticides and that, if someone wanted to harvest weed plants like sour grass or dandelions, to try to look for large numbers of them that grow together with other plants, like the patch of sour grass and ice plant near the Thunderdome. Photograph by Joshua Richardson Sourgrass Patch Kids If it’s only one or two nestled into other flowers or plants, there is a good chance that it has been treated with chemicals to kill the weed. Therefore, Fidel recommends being wary of where the plant is, how much of it there is, and what types of other plants and flowers surround it. Fidel, himself, likes to be adventurous and tries to indulge in some of the plants and fruits he cares for, using these guidelines. ​ If there’s one thing to be said from what I’ve gathered during my interviews, it is first that being outside in Isla Vista is an amazing experience. As the home to edible plants, beautiful parks, and environmental conservation areas like the North Campus Open Space, it is loved and treasured by many people, especially those who take care of it. While I absolutely encourage venturing out and engaging with the nature of Isla Vista, I believe that we should also recognize that different spaces require different methods of engagement and of recreation. Engaging in the natural resources at UCSB, unlike the parks, requires a more mindful touch. We have to be wary of recycled water, observant of the plants in close proximity to the ones we are interested in, and cautious with how and what we eat. Sure, we can practice both active and passive recreation on campus, but we have to be mindful of how we do it to ensure we aren’t accidentally foraging plants that could have been watered with recycled water. The North Campus Open Space, however, is a place of visitation, of learning, and of passive recreation. Mindfulness in a space like this is being conscious of the efforts being made to preserve the plants and animals and aware of what trails you take. Each place has different needs for how we engage with it, whether that be passively or actively, and it’s up to us to think more about what they are and what they could be. We each have a part that we in our environment and we can affect it, simply by bringing dogs out for walks without their leashes in the NCOS or misusing plants, as much as it can affect us, like by accidentally consuming recycled water. Being mindful of the plants, the spaces, and of ourselves, will help keep us from harming the plants themselves, taking too much from them at one time, and help us and the environment around us thrive and flourish together. By Isla Vista Parks and Recreation Department Isla Vista Peace Course ​ While we were there, Joe told me that one of his main goals for the parks is to see people use them. Seeing people do yoga at the parks on the bluffs, having picnics with their friends, and just being out and enjoying them brings him joy. He takes care of the Orchard and the parks so that people will be more inclined to go out into them and be a part of the world around them. Isla Vista’s Peace Course that starts at the Sueño Orchard, he told me, is actually the home to a disc golf world record for most holes made in 24 hours, made by a student named Mike Sale back in 2013. The NCOS and the parks of Isla Vista are two different types of recreational spaces, but there exists a third, more variable space in between the two, UCSB’s campus. UCSB is home to a large collection of edible and medicinal plants and fruits. It’s one of the most unique features of our university campus, the availability of fruits to forage and eat. In addition to these, there are also a lot of open lawns where students can sit and read a book, study, or hang out with their friends. With great resources and open spaces, it would seem like UCSB would allow us to be almost care-free in our use of the landscape. However, in an interview I had with Fidel, one of UCSB’s groundskeepers, I learned that this may not always be the case. Recycled Water Recycled Purple Recycled Water 1/2 About the Author: Joshua Richardson Thank you so much for taking the time to read through this article. My name is Joshua Richardson. I am a third year Anthropology student at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Although my time at UCSB has been short as a transfer student, I am so glad to have had the opportunity to create this work and share it with everyone. I hope that you learned as much from reading this article as I did researching and writing it.

  • Cooking on Lo Heat | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects Sustainable and Flavorful Food Practices within Isla Vista By Logan Snyder Within this three part series, I will guide you through the processes of gardening and foraging within Isla Vista, along with easy, flavorful, and sustainable recipes that you can cook. "Jamming Out" Foraging and Jam-Making in Isla Vista View Recipe "Simple Sustainability" Gardening, Pickling, and T acos from Scratch View Recipe Chumash Appreciation Acorn Dumpling Stew and Chia Lemonade View Recipe Recipes About Logan: I hope you enjoyed the shows! My goal for this series was to provide Isla Vista residents and anyone who comes across the page with some easy ways of interacting with the environment and creating good food out of what you find and buy. I learned to cook through a range of YouTube channels, at Barbareno (a local farm-to-table restaurant in downtown Santa Barbara), and from side by side tutorials from my family while I grew up. Food has always been a passion of mine, and I hope to inspire others to love cooking as much as I do. Logan Snyder Cultural anthropology student, UCSB

  • Eat Your Weeds | Hoelle Lab

    Home Database Maps Guidelines Engaging Ebot IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT "Eat Your Weeds" -Bailey McKernan

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