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  • Jamming Out | Hoelle Lab

    "Jamming Out" Foraging and Jam-Making in Isla Vista Home About Projects Video by Logan Snyder Songs: "What You Sippin' On" by Penthouse Penthouse , "Now" by Tom Misch Recipe: Natal Plum Jam Ingredients: Ripe natal plums: you should be able to squeeze them and they squish a little bit. The more they squish the better, unless they look old and brown/moldy ​ Sugar: equal weight to the plums ​ 1/2 cup water ​ Lemons or oranges: 1 of each or two total of whichever you have Directions: De-seed and mash natal plums. Add equal weight in sugar. Pour into sauce pan. Add splash of water. Squeeze juice from lemons/oranges into mixture. Mix ingredients. Bring to a hard boil for about 10 minutes, and then put into heat-proof container and let cool in fridge. After about a day, jam should be set and ready to spread. Recipe for Any Jam Ingredients: Mashed fruit: specific fruits will set "stronger" and thicker due to them having more pectin in their skin ​ Sugar: equal weight to fruit (You can substitute honey, agave nectar, brown sugar, etc. but their flavors may overpower the fruit flavor. A good idea would be half white sugar and half other sweetener). ​ 1/2 cup water: so the sugar doesn't burn ​ Citrus: lemon, lime, orange, grapefruit, etc. Directions: Mash fruit and add equal weight in sugar. Add citrus and water. Bring to a hard boil for about 10 minutes, or until the jam looks thicker than when you started. Pour into heat-proof container and cool in refrigerator for a day or so. Jam! The Science Behind Jam: "The pectin content of different fruits varies: fruits such as apples and blackcurrants have higher levels of pectin than those such as strawberries and raspberries. In cases where a jam is being made from a low pectin fruit, either a higher pectin fruit must also be included, or commercial pectin must be added. Commercial pectin is obtained from the peel of citrus fruits, which have a naturally high pectin content" (Compound Interest). Learn More Foraging Considerations: If you choose to forage for the fruits when making your Jam, make sure to consider the ethical implications of taking fruit from nature. To learn more about these ethical considerations, check out these projects: Ethics of Enjoying IV Ancient Herbs for Modern Students For more safety tips and advice on foraging, visit: "A Beginner's Guide to Foraging" View Guide Try Another Recipe

  • Chumash Ethnobotany | Hoelle Lab

    Home Database Maps Guidelines Engaging Ebot IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT Cultural Landscape: Chumash Ethnobotany The edible IV landscape reflects the people and history it encompasses. It is a diverse cultivated space with Mexican chayote growing alongside Chinese bok choi while gardeners and foragers from different backgrounds plant their familiar varieties and share tips. But the history of the edible landscape is much deeper than today’s student food initiatives or the 70s counterculture gardeners of Tipi Village (see Sueño Orchard ). Each patch of ground is a reflection of IV culture from past to present. Looking out over a seemingly “wild” plot of land, there is a historical timeline: from pre-human to Chumash history, from European contact to today’s global plant diaspora. The California landscape has been used by native groups for as long as it has been populated, an estimated thirteen thousand years ago (Timbrook, 2007). The Chumash of this area used, and still use, the native plants which now grow alongside the diverse array of plant varieties. Our knowledge of native plant use comes from archaeological data and through oral histories passed down through generations and it continues to be studied. Just as eating our landscape allows us to engage with the physical environment in a new way, understanding traditional uses of native plants allows us to engage directly with history and with the people who foraged before us. Click the link below to watch a video recording on our DIY Ethnobotany Classes page about even more plants the Chumash use! DIY Ethnobotany The Chumash, Isla Vista's First Foragers: This stretch of California is incredibly diverse with nearly fifteen hundred plant species native to the Chumash region (Timbrook, 2007). Reflecting this plant diversity, there were over six different Chumash languages spoken, with Barbareño spoken in this area. The Chumash called Isla Vista “Anisq’oyo’,” meaning manzanita (Arctostaphylos), a native shrub-like plant type with edible berries and flowers. Their livelihoods centered largely around gathering wild plants, fishing and hunting (Timbrook, 2007). Though we often think of early native groups as “one with nature”, not changing or impacting but simply living off of the land, in reality, the Chumash actively engaged with and altered their environment, creating a living artifact which continues to be shaped today. When the Spanish arrived in California in 1542 they witnessed “tended gardens rich in wildflowers, edible bulbs, and carefully groomed grasslands” (Gamble, 2008) (Reid, et al. 2009). Though the Chumash didn’t practice agriculture in the manicured, geometric rows we think of today, they promoted growth of useful plants through the use of fire and strategic foraging (Timbrook, 2007). Native Taxonomies: The categories we use to talk about plants are not universal and are, in many cases, arbitrary. By using the “scientific” system of taxonomy, a lens is often created through which we see the world, inhibiting the understanding of local, equally legitimate environmental categories. For example, what is a weed? To us, a weed is any unwanted plant that pops up among our manicured gardens or between sidewalk cracks. There is nothing that makes these unruly plants weeds except for our aversion toward them. Many cultural groups have no word, classification or concept of "weeds." The Chumash people grouped plants in different ways and by different features. By recognizing these categories as not fixed or universal, but relative to the people by which they are used, we can better understand plants from new perspectives. ​ What are "Native Plants" and Why Do We Value Them? There is a tendency to view a stark division between plants that are “native” and “non-native” (introduced) but, like people, plants have moved, blown and grown across boundaries throughout time. It is more beneficial to think of spectrums or timelines of environments and, while some plants listed may have been “introduced,” they have still played important roles for native people. Nonetheless, conservation of those plants with a deep history in the area is essential to knowing and preserving our landscape. According to the UCSC arboretum, one third of California’s native plants are endangered, rare or threatened (2009). This is largely due to overdevelopment of “cultivated” concrete landscapes. The loss of native plants impacts insect and animal populations and affects the ecology as a whole. Promoting diversity of plant environments which include both native and non-native plants helps preserve the timeline of history and ecological health. ​ Chumash Plant Uses: Below are some of the plants used by the Chumash that can be found in Isla Vista and on campus. Visit the map to discover their locations. Walqaqsh , Common Name: Lemonadeberry (Rhus integrifolia ) The fruit of the lemonadeberry was ground, laid to dry in the sun, and eaten. It may also have been made into a drink by being soaked in water (Timbrook, 2007: 166). ​ Khapshikh , Common Name: Sage (Salvia officinalis ) Sage has a variety of medicinal benefits documented to have been used by the Chumash. To remedy night sweats, sage was brewed in water and drunk before sleep or boiled in milk to aid insomnia (Timbrook, 2007: 184). Sage tea was also used to sooth the stomach, cleanse the blood and nervous system, and to alleviate symptoms of anemia, colds and flus. ​ Sto'yots' , Common Name: Ice plant (Carpobrotus edulis ) Ice plant was used by the Chumash but is not a native plant and most likely came from South Africa (Hickman, 1993:128). The Chumash ate the fruit of the ice plant which are “very sweet-tasting and just a little salty” (Timbrook, 2007:50). ​ Mal , Common Name: Mallow (Malva parviflora ) After the arrival of the Spanish and development of the mission agricultural system, many plants were introduced to the area and entered into Chumash use. Mallow were some of the herbaceous plants that snuck in with the agricultural seeds. They were similar to some of the native plants already used by the Chumash (Timbrook, 1984:146). The Chumash used mallow to make strings and also adopted its medicinal uses from the Spanish, making a tea for fevers, inflammation and stomach problems (Timbrook, 2007:121) ​ 'Akhiye'p (Ventureño) , Common Name: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis ) Chumash Name: ‘akhiye’p (Ventureño) The Chumash used Rosemary, introduced by the Spanish, in similar ways to the native plant, woolly blue curls (trichostema lanatum). They would make a tea from the flowers and leaves to aid the stomach or would add the leaves to food for flavoring. The Chumash also used rosemary as a body and hair cleanser. In oral histories, it has been documented that a tea mixture of rosemary and vinegar or wine was used as an abortifacient (Timbrook, 2007:218) Learn More: Visit the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden Find the UCSB Chumash Heritage Garden near the SRB Join the UCSB American Indian & Indigenous Garden Alliance Take a trip to the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Learn from the people themselves at Santa Ynez Chumash Reservation Works Cited: Gamble, L. (2008). The Chumash World at European Contact: Power, Trade and Feasting Among Complex Hunter Gatherers. [online]. California Scholarship Online. ​ Reid, S., Wishingrad, V. and McCabe S., (2009). Plant Uses: California, Santa Cruz. UC Santa Cruz Arboretum. ​ Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Indians, (2009). Santa Ynez Reservation. [online]. ​ Timbrook, J. (1984). Chumash Ethnobotany: A Preliminary Report. Journal of Ethnobiology, Volume 4(2). ​ Timbrook, J. (2007). Chumash Ethnobotany: Plant Knowledge Among the Chumash People of Southern California, Berkeley: Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History.

  • Mugwort | Hoelle Lab

    Mugwort Traditional Chumash Medicine "Dream Sage" Image by Anton Darius Home About Projects Chumash Elder Art Cisneros demonstrates a quick and easy dialogue with the plant spirit you wish to bring home with you. Video by Olivia Robért at El Capitan Creek, February 2020 While we were walking to the beach Art told me of a dear friend of his, a Chumash medicine woman named Cecelia Garcia who wrote a book with James David Adams, Jr. an Associate Professor of Pharmacology at the University of Southern California. The book was called Healing with Medicinal Plants of the West: Cultural and Scientific Basis for Their Use . In it Cecelia calls mugwort “dream sage”, because it is a powerful spiritual tool for dreamtime, just like sage is a sacred cleansing tool in the waking life. Mugwort has been used for thousands of years all over the world. It is a medicine that has been used for digestion, pain killer, insect repellent, and many others. It is a part of the genus Artemisia, named after Artemis, the Greek goddess of the hunt, wild women, and the moon. There are around 500 species of Artemisia distributed across Asia, Europe, and North America that have a rich history of use as a cultivated sacred plant. The name Mugwort is attributed to its historical use in flavoring drinks, specifically in beer. Mugwort has been used by women historically to stimulate menstruation and to aid unwanted pregnancies, because it acts on the uterus. 12th century texts extensively describe Mugwort as a menstrual tonic, and one 14th century text discusses Mugwort’s use in expelling dead fetal tissue after a miscarriage (Van de Walle 1997). The focus of my research on mugwort is its use for vivid dreams, astral travel, and divination. The reason behind its association with dreams is the psychedelic components present in the plant. “Like its abortive properties, Mugwort’s widespread use as a psychoactive substance is due to a variety of terpene compounds like α- and β- thujones (which also stimulate the heart and the central nervous system) (Alberto-Puleo 1978). Three additional terpene compounds are also found in A. vulgaris leaves, and work synergistically with α- and β- thujones to account for Mugwort’s hypnotic and psychedelic effects.” "Wild Mugwort at El Capitan State Beach" by Olivia Robért Referred to in Russian as “zabytko” which means forgetful, Mugwort’s strong camphor like oils, when inhaled, open up chambers of ancient memory within the brain, bringing one’s dream life stirring visions of past and future that overflow with magical imagery. The symbols which dance through our Mugwort-touched dreams pull out the cobwebs of our forgetfulness and assist us in remembering old, unwritten ways of healing and living that attend to the needs of the spirit and soul”. ​ – Judith Berger, Herbal Rituals This amazing little “weed” can be found growing in watery areas, and likes plenty of sun. If you are a UCSB student, look toward the IV Ethnobotany website to find where it grows around campus and Isla Vista. Visit IV Ethnobotany Drawing Meditation: In a phone interview with Betty Seaman, who trained with Eliot Cowan, author of Plant Spirit Medicine , said one of the best ways to get to know a plant is by spending time sketching it. The process of intent focus on its shape and characteristics will help when trying to dream with it, as well as noting where and how it grows. Ted Talk by Ralph Ammer : "How Drawing Helps You Think" "Mugwort Drawing Meditation" by Olivia Robért Dreamtime and Health: Dream health is considered one of the most important aspects of Chumash culture, but it is something Western society brushes off. The Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung looks at elements of the unconscious as they appear in dreams. The scientific world had begun to remember the knowledge which their ancestors once knew. Mugwort is one of the herbs that can illuminate dreams and bring clarity. Well, this interesting 2012 study goes in depth on the preparation of mugwort to treat anxiety and ADHD in traditional Chumash communities. The recipe for dreams is as follows: “To induce dreams, place the stems and leaves, under a pillow and sleep on the pillow. The fragrance helps with dreaming. When the plant dries, strip the leaves and stuff them into a small pillow. Place this under the regular pillow and continue sleeping on both pillows. This is a traditional use of A. douglasiana especially in very ill or aged people who cannot dream. Dreaming is considered an essential part of life and healing.” The conclusion to this paper, written by James D. Adams at the University of Southern California, says this: “The sedative, antianxiety and dreaming effects of mugwort should be tested in clinical trials. Medicine frequently neglects dreaming as an essential part of healing.” When it comes time to harvest, make sure you are creating a good relationship with the herb. Here is my dear friend Art to show you a way to ask for permission before harvesting. Offering tobacco is traditional, but if you do not have access to it, a coin, strand of hair, water from your head, cornmeal, or even chocolate (if there are no dogs in the area) can make a good gift. The point is to stay in reciprocity with the earth and give something of value in return. “All things enjoy ecstatic union with nature. Life without ecstasy is not true life and not worth living. Without ecstasy the soul becomes shriveled and perverted, the mind becomes corrupt and the body suffers pain. Ecstatic union with nature is necessary for normal health. It is normal for survival.” ​ - Eliot Cowan, Plant Spirit Medicine. Page 29. Learn About Herbs and Immunity Sources: Art Cisneros, Chumash Elder. Cecilia Garcia and James David Adams, Jr. Healing with Medicinal Plants of the West : Cultural and Scientific Basis for their Use . Abedus Press, 2009. Print. h ttps:// Eliot Cowan. Plant Spirit Medicine . Sounds True, 2014. Print. Judith Berger. Herbal Rituals: Recipes for Everyday Living . St. Martin's Griffin, 1999. Print.

  • Watercolor Paints | Hoelle Lab

    Make Your Own: Watercolor Paints with Plants Foraging with: Laura Tucker and Natalie Plumb Beachcombing Enthusiasts NP Home About Projects Living on the Santa Barbara coast, we are surrounded by an expansive variety of plant and animal species. In just the time it takes you to ride your bike from Coal Oil Point to Davidson Library, you can see hundreds of species of flowers, fruits, and other vegetation, many of which can be turned into natural paint. Whether you are an experienced artist or have never picked up a paint brush in your life, making your own paints from the plants in our local environment is a perfect way to spend the day. For this project, I teamed up with local beachcombing enthusiast and UCSB student, Laura Tucker. While Laura has taken several environmental and ethnobotany courses and is somewhat familiar with identifying plant species, she has little artistic experience. On the other hand, I have been painting practically my entire life, but I have no foraging experience or skills in identifying particular plant species. We made the perfect team! Inspired by local Chumash paint making traditions, we began our own paint making journey beachcombing the bluffs above Devereux beach. Early Paint Making: “Though we often think of early native groups as ‘one with nature’, not changing or impacting but simply living off the land, in reality, the Chumash actively engaged with and altered their environment, creating a living artifact which continues to be shaped today ” (IV Ethnobotany). ​ Making paint from natural materials is not a new phenomenon. Archaeologists have dated the earliest cave paintings to the Paleolithic age, stretching back as early as 23,000 BCE, with the creation of Pech-Merle and Lascaux, two of the most famous Paleolithic cave painting sites in France. These early painters ground up red and yellow clay, often referred to as ocher, into powder that was mixed with water. They made their paint brushes from reeds and twigs taken from their environment (Kleiner p. 17). ​ While the Chumash were certainly not the first people to make paints from natural materials, oral traditions and archaeological studies provide insight into the paint making techniques of the communities that initially inhabited the land that is now Isla Vista and the UCSB campus. The Chumash made black paint from grounding up charcoal and used iron oxide to make red, purple, yellow, and orange. They mixed these paint powders in stone cups with water, milkweed, cucumber seeds, animal oil, or the whites of birds’ eggs to create different consistencies. They made their paint brushes from yucca and animal tails (The Chumash People p. 69). The tradition of Chumash rock painting has been preserved in caves throughout the Santa Barbara and Santa Ynez areas. You can view one such cave and appreciate the beauty of early Chumash paint making for yourself by visiting the “Chumash Painted Cave” in the Santa Barbara mountains, or by taking a virtual tour on the CYARK website. Visit "Chumash Painted Cave" First Peoples Image of Chumash Painted Cave, Santa Barbara Photograph by Kristina D.C. Hoeppner Our Isla Vista Paint Making Journey: For our own paint making project, we decided to take inspiration from Chumash foraging and beachcombing practices, combining them with recipes from my favorite arts and crafts online blogs. In the true beachcombing spirit, we began our paint making journey on the bluffs overlooking Devereux beach, then continued on bike around the slough and North Campus Open Space, across campus, and concluded at Campus Point. Since we had never made paints before, our foraging experience was an exciting experiment. We had no idea what to expect, which plants would make the best paints, or even if the flowers we found would produce usable pigment. With only a basket to hold the products of our foraging strapped to Laura's bike, we set out in search of vibrant flowers and juicy fruits that we could use to make water color paints. As we stopped to collect flowers, we took photos of each plant so that we could identify them later using the IV Ethnobotany website and the PlantNet mobile app. Along the way, we discovered parts of Isla Vista and campus we had never seen and encountered a wide range of wildlife, including a Great Egret. We returned home not only with a basket full of brilliantly colored flowers and fruits, but also knowledge of brand new places we could enjoy in our very own backyard, namely the slough and North Campus Open Space. Whether you are an avid runner, bird watcher, or in search of a gorgeous nature walk, the North Campus Open Space offers something for you. Visit the North Campus Open Space Laura Tucker biking/foraging along Devereux bluffs Video by Natalie Plumb The Fruits of Our Foraging: Despite being the end of February, Laura and I found ourselves enjoying a warm and sunny day while foraging. Hopping off her bike to gather lavender, Laura, overlooking the breathtaking Goleta slough, perfectly summed up our foraging adventure: "I can not imagine a better way to spend today." To the right, you can view images taken of the various flowers and fruits we collected. While Laura was able to identify some species on the spot, we had to rely on the IV Ethnobotany website and PlantNet to identify the majority of the species. To find out where you can locate for yourself some of the plants featured in our project, visit the IV Ethnobotany website. Visit IV Ethnobotany Here are a few of the plants we were able to identify and where we found them: Devereux bluffs: California bush sunflower, sage, ice plant, mustard Goleta slough: lavender, Indian cres North Campus Open Space: firethorn Sueno Park/Orchard: strawberry guava UCSB campus: natal plum ​ Before foraging on your own, make sure to consult the IV Ethnobotany "Foraging Guidelines" to ensure that you are staying safe, following the law, and being mindful of the ethical implications of foraging. California Bush Sunflower Encelia californica; Bush sunflower; California brittlebush Location: Devereux bluffs Paint: vibrant yellow water color Sage Salvia officinalis Location: Devereux bluffs Fruits of Our Foraging The result of an afternoon of foraging; This is a top view of the basket strapped to Laura's bike. California Bush Sunflower Encelia californica; Bush sunflower; California brittlebush Location: Devereux bluffs Paint: vibrant yellow water color 1/19 Slideshow of the plants we collected while foraging All images by Natalie Plumb Foraging Guidelines Beachcombing the Devereux bluffs Video by Natalie Plumb How to Turn Plants into Paints: Following the Chumash tradition of grounding up plant matter, then mixing it with water, we began experimenting with the different plants we foraged. The foraging part is without a doubt the most time consuming and difficult part of the paint making process, but it is also the most fun and rewarding. After you have gathered the plants you want to make into paint, the process is straightforward and requires very few materials. All you need is: containers (to sort the flowers by species or color) blender (for grinding up petals and berries) strainer (use for berries and fruits) hot water (for mixing and drawing out the dye) glass containers/jars (to pour the paint into) paint brush paper ​ Each plant presented its own challenges when it came to blending. For the fruits and berries, we found that we had to run the initial water-berry blend through a strainer in order to get a less grainy consistency. Overall, our favorite paints came from the California bush sunflower (yellow), an unidentified blue flower (blue), and the natal plum (deep pink/red). Plants sorted into containers by color and species Image by Natalie Plumb Step by Step: Gather all desired plants and fruits from your local environment. (See guidelines above). Sort plants into containers by color or species. For this step, we combined the California bush sunflowers with mustard flowers to make the yellow paint. However, we kept all berries and fruit separate because we were not sure what color pigment each berry would produce. Remove all petals from each flower and stems and leaves from fruits. Place the stem and leaf material in a pile to be used for compost later. ​ For each container/plant: Heat 1/2 cup of water in the microwave for 45 seconds (nearly, but not boiling ). Then pour hot water into the blender. Add the flower petals or berries to the blender. Blend until smooth. For berries/fruits, pour the blended mixture through a strainer into a small bowl to remove all extra grainy material . Pour blended mixture into glass container. Let sit for a few minutes, then you are ready to paint! ​ S tore leftover paint in covered containers in the fridge. Tutorial by Natalie Plumb A Message from Laura: "Just do it! You have no idea what it's going to turn out to be, but even if you're not an artist, like me, it's going to be worth your time just to have the experience of doing it and being able to connect with nature on a little bit of a deeper level." Interview with Laura Tucker about her paint making experience Video and interview by Natalie Plumb Try Another Project Sources: Kleiner, S. Fred. "Gardner's Art Through the Ages: A Concise Western History." Cengage Learning, 2015. Print. "The Chumash People: Materials for Teachers and Students." A Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Docent Project, 1991. Print. "Chumash Ethnobotany: The Chumash, Isla Vista's First Foragers" (IV Ethnobotany Project). Image of "Chumash Painted Cave" by Kristina D.C. Hoeppner, 2011. All other images and video by Natalie Plumb, 2020. Tutorial music: "Upbeat Party" by Scott Holmes. Inspiring & Upbeat Music . Free Music Archive.

  • Engaging Ethnobotany/ Resources | Hoelle Lab

    Home Database Maps Guidelines Engaging Ebot Cultivating Communities IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT Engaging Ethnobotany Table of Contents: DIY Learn how to use local plants in creative ways. The DIY section includes a cooking channel, a guide to learning how to weave, plant identification, ethnobotany classes, nature journaling, and scavenger hunts. Cultural Landscape Cultural landscapes are any natural or geographical landscape that is somehow imbued with human cultural meanings, including history, events, buildings, roads, middens, farms, etc. These places are intersections between nature and culture. More Resources Want to learn more about the plants growing around UCSB and Isla Vista? Check out these campus plant resources, cool organizations, and blogs. Here, you can also find additional sources for foraging and plant identification. IV Ebot Instagram Check out the UCSB IV Ethnobotany Project's Instagram account to learn about what edible plants are near UCSB! You can also direct message us plant pics and we will help you identify them. Do It Yourself (DIY) DIY Cooking Channel Delicious Recipes Made with Local Plants Let's Cook! Woven Wonders Learn How to Use Local Plants to Weave and Create Cordage Learn How Plant Identification Learn How to Identify Plants around UCSB and IV Learn How Ebot Classes Explore Past Ethnobotany Classes Learn More Nature Journaling Check Out Videos for How to Nature Journal Learn How Scavenger Hunts Check Out Our Plant & Nature Scavenger Hunts Learn How Cultural Landscape Cultural Landscape Chumash Ebot Check out this article about how Chumash use native plants Learn More Sueño Orchard Check out this article about Sueño Orchard in IV Learn More Food Insecurity Learn more about food insecurity across the world Learn More The Truth About "Weeds" Check this article about useful "weeds" around IV Learn More Eat Your Weeds Check out this zine made by Bailey McKernan about edible weeds. Learn More IV Ethnobotany Instagram Check out the UCSB IV Ethnobotany Project's Instagram account to learn about what edible plants are near UCSB! You can direct message us plant pics and we will help you identify them. Follow our account to keep up to date with all things IV Ethnobotany, including classes, events, projects, and more! View our Profile Instagram More Resources Campus Plant Resources: UCSB Plant Club : email to join the mailing list and get involved CCBER's Campus Flora Project : check out what CCBER is doing on campus! CCBER's Exotic Flora Walking Tour : check out some non-native plants on campus! CCBER's Ethnobotanical Walking Tour : check out CCBER's ethnobotanically relevant plants! Cool Organizations: People and Plants : grassroots organizing and policy change Society of Ethnobiology Blogs: Eat the Weeds Beautiful Food Gardening: transforming an ordinary suburban lot into a beautiful edible landscape Foraging and Plant Identification Resources: *We cannot voice for the accuracy of these sites. Remember to check plant identifications against multiple sources and never eat something you are not 100% sure about. See our IV Ethnobotany Foraging Guidelines . Fallen Fruit : experience your city as a fruitful place Dina Fisher : Southern California foraging guide Cal Flora : information on wild California plants Santa Monica Mountains : wildflowers of the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area iNaturalist : plants, animals, and fungi of the Santa Clara River Wild Edible: Learn how to forage safely and sustainably More Resources

  • Henley Gate (Heliyik) | Hoelle Lab

    Image by Glenn Beltz Home About Projects Henley Gate (Heliyik) Currently the site of UCSB's Henley Gate, to the Chumash this site was known as Heliyik and it was one of the major settlements of the area. The name Heliyik means ‘the middle’ which likely comes from its position relative to the other large Chumash sites of the area. The Goleta Valley as a whole was a densely populated area with many towns and Heliyik was one such town located on the terrace by the east entrance of campus. Today, the scenic place where most fourth years take their graduation photos sits directly on top of this former settlement which very few people know about. 1940 During WWII the site where UCSB would be built served as military base and the area near Henley Gate was the site of the barracks. 1788 Approximately, referred to by Fr. Fermín Francisco de Lasuén as ‘Las Llagas’ but this name, like the others he assigned to the Goleta towns, would not last very long. 2000 Before the Henley Gate was built, the East Entrance held the UCSB campus kiosk which is now at the loop by Campbell Hall. 2008 July, the Henley Gate was fully constructed and unveiled. The entire project cost some $5 million with half being used on the Steck roundabout and half on the gate itself. 2007 The East Gate project awarded Project of the Year Award from our local branch of the American Society of Civil Engineers (Steck Roundabout completed). Prior to European contact this site was used as a site of council meetings, festivals, and feasts. WWII Marine Air Station. Image from IV Local Wiki . Modern UCSB Henley Gate. Image from Wikimedia Commons . Back to the Map Sources: Johnson, John R. “The Rancherias of Mescaltitan: Chumash History and Sociopolitical Organization in the Goleta Valley.” GOLETA SLOUGH PREHISTORY: Insights Gained from a Vanishing Archaeological Record, vol. 4, SANTA BARBARA MUS OF NAT, 2020, pp. 17–51. Contributions in Anthropology. ( )

  • Jeffrey Hoelle | Hoelle Lab

    Curriculum Vitae ​ Google Scholar Profile ​ Orcid ​ Curriculo Lattes (Brasil) ​ Contact: Office: HSSB 2073 Lab: HSSB 2075 ​ ​ Teaching 2023-2024: Winter '24: ANTH 2 & ANTH 205 ​ Rainforest Cowboys Publications UCSB Courses Jeffrey Hoelle I am an associate professor in the Department of Anthropology at the University of California, Santa Barbara. I am also affiliate faculty in the Environmental Studies Program, Geography, and Latin American and Iberian Studies at UCSB. My research focuses broadly on understanding the role of cultural beliefs and practices in human-environment relations, and particularly in practices that result in negative environmental outcomes. I conduct research in the Amazon, primarily in the state of Acre, Brazil. In my first book, Rainforest Cowboys , I examined the logic of cattle raising among different groups in western Amazonia. My current work aims to expand the scope of explanations of environmental destruction through ethnographic research and collaborative projects. I am working on a second book based on practices and aesthetics of cultivation along the Amazonian frontier. This project draws on my research in settled or anthropogenic places that were once forested, from rural pastures, fields, and homesteads to landscaped lawns in the city and public parks. I am also working with colleagues in other disciplines to integrate social and cultural factors into theories and explanations of deforestation and land use-land cover change. I have also worked on collaborative research on gold mining, frontier governance, and indigenous land struggles. ​ At UCSB, I teach a Intro to Cultural Anthropology as well as specialized courses , such as "Environmental Anthropology" and "Amazonia." I also work closely with undergraduate students through the IV (Isla Vista) Ethnobotany Project . The Project aims to engage students with the local environment through mapping and documentation of useful and edible plants and the cultural landscape around the UCSB campus. We go on foraging walks and get together to share food and knowledge about plants. If interested in joining us, the easiest way is to follow our instragram . ​ I am currently the co-lead scholar of the Fulbright Amazonia program . The program brings together sixteen researchers from the US and Amazon nations to work together on policy-relevant research.

  • The Morels of Mushroom Foraging | Hoelle Lab

    Home About Projects Morels of Mushroom Foraging Image by Denis Murphy Disclaimer: Be careful around mushrooms. Mushrooms can be extremely dangerous and kill you. As Laurence Hauben, a chef, cook, and writer in Santa Barbara, says, “Don’t pick any mushroom you are not 100% familiar with, and watch out for look-alikes”. ​ Mushroom foraging, harvesting, or picking is the gathering of mushrooms in the wild. It is an activity that has been around for centuries and remains a prized sport. ​ Why do people do it? For mushrooms, of course! The search for a clump of the magical fungi amidst the forest debris is a rush that not many have experienced. Popular among the mushroom fanatics of Santa Barbara are chanterelle, oyster, among other delectable fungi which are prized for their taste, rarity, or both. Laurence Hauben, a mushroom enthusiast, began her mushroom harvesting journey in France, where she was born. She “first saw wild mushrooms at a Farmers Market in France, found them really tasty, and became interested in foraging for them while hiking in the countryside. It is like going on a treasure hunt”. The delectable mushrooms you can find in the wild makes the experience entirely worthwhile! ​ The right environmental conditions must be met before embarking on a foraging adventure. It is important to pay attention to the seasonal patterns and temperature as mushrooms grow only in certain conditions. Hauben says, “foraging, whether for mushrooms or for wild plants, is a great way to increase your awareness of the land. It teaches you to pay close attention to the environment, seasonal changes, differences in terrain, climate, light, companion plants, insects”. Any mushroom forager can tell you the necessity of understanding the environment to successfully forage as there are many nuances in the environment that can only be recognized by taking time to listen to nature. ​ Foragers have rules and etiquette they follow to protect the environment from overharvesting and damage. They step lightly and carefully, as there might be a mushroom underfoot. They may even hide their baskets to trick the mushrooms into thinking that they will not be picked. Hauben advises, “If you find an edible mushroom patch, don’t pick them all, leave some alone so the fungi can reproduce and propagate next year. Be gentle, don’t trample all over the ground or disrupt the forest floor”. There are many unspoken rules of mushroom harvesting that promote a gentle reverence of nature. The care that foragers take to not disrupt their environment should be practiced by others as many do not realize that the environment is alive and thriving. It is important that human interactions with the environment replicate those of foragers as humans have distanced themselves from nature and taken less time to engage with what’s around them. The magic of mushroom foraging is the connection it brings to the surrounding environment, and if you pay attention you’ll never know what you’ll find. More About Mushrooms Sources: L. Hauben, personal communication, February 29 2020

  • Foraging Guidelines | Hoelle Lab

    Home Database Maps Guidelines Engaging Ebot Cultivating Communities IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT Foraging Guidelines Safety & Health Never eat anything you are unsure of as many plants have toxic look-alikes. Check your identification against multiple sources. Seek a professional opinion when a plant can not be confirmed. Avoid spines and other plant hazards. Be aware of potential allergies. For example, natal plums should not be eaten by those with latex allergies. Be aware that most plants on the UCSB campus are watered with reclaimed water. Refer to this study: Reclaimed Water Use in the Landscape. Avoid pesticide consumption. Always wash what is foraged and be aware of pesticide use, especially when foraging for weeds. On campus, Roundup is used on the soil for post-emergent weed control. Avoid landscaped areas where pesticides may be used. Some plants absorb toxins more than others. Legal Do not forage on private property. Always seek permission from property owners before taking fruit or plants. Know your rights. Foraging in public spaces and from plants that are overhanging from private property into public space is permitted in California. Do not forage in protected or conservation areas. This includes the campus lagoon, coal oil point reserve, and more . Respect conservation efforts and local ecologies. Do not forage in California State Parks . Refer to National Park sites for specified foraging information. For example, Yosemite. Do not forage native, threatened or endangered plants. Refer to California Laws Protecting Native Plants. Ethical Be respectful of people, including landscapers. Though fruit may be overhanging, maintain a good reputation for foragers by being respectful of property owners. Use the opportunity to get to know neighbors and those who maintain the landscape. Be respectful of plants and the landscape areas. Avoid climbing or harming trees and plants; usually it is better for the plant to cut th fruit from it than to pull it. Be respectful of cultural heritage sites. Do not forage from the Chumash Garden on campus. Avoid over-harvesting. Take only what you need so others may also enjoy foraging. The typical rule is to never harvest more than 1/3 of a plant or 1/3 of a population of plants. Environmental and Wildlife Hazards Poison Oak Be careful not to step on or brush up against poison oak! Many people are somewhat allergic (local itchiness) and some people are VERY allergic (full body, systemic reaction with blisters and swelling everywhere) to the oils on the sticks and leaves. It has many different appearances depending on where you find it. In wet, shady areas, this plant can have beautiful, broad, bright green leaves, with deep lobes. In dry, hot, sunny areas, the leaves can be very small, barely lobed, crumpled, and dark, dark red. Regardless, the leaves are in clusters of three (Leaves of three, let it be! If it’s hairy, it’s a berry!). In the winter, the plant has no leaves, but once you get to know the plant, the branches are pretty noticeable (they look like they are reaching for you, often with tiny little buds on the ends); beware: the leaf-less sticks ARE still poisonous. Poison oak usually starts out with green leaves in the spring and turns steadily redder until the leaves fall off in fall or winter. Poison oak can grow like a weed, a shrub, a tree, a vine or a liana. If you aren’t sure if it’s poison oak, assume it is! Better safe than sorry. If you do happen to encounter poison oak, wash as quickly as possible with cold water and soap; there are also special soaps that help get rid of poison oak or you can run Mugwort all over the affected area. Poison oak is most commonly found in more natural spaces like around the lagoon, but I regularly see little poison oak sprouts in out of the way planters on campus. Ticks There are four types of these blood sucking biting arachnids in California. These can all transmit diseases to humans, many of which have horrible, lasting symptoms, like lyme, and others that can be deadly. It is key that you check yourself for ticks after you brush up against plants; they can even fall from trees, so make sure you check everywhere, especially in the darker parts of your body like beneath clothes, along the hairline and where the sun don’t shine. If you find a tick on yourself that has bitten you, the best recommendation is to see a professional to have it removed as quickly as possible; often, they recommend antibiotics as well. It is very difficult to remove a tick properly without it breaking apart and spreading disease faster. Bees & Wasps Thankfully, the most common bee you are going to see around Isla Vista is the European Honey Bee. The black and orange/yellow striped female worker bees with fuzzy bodies are the ones that can sting you, but they are rarely aggressive unless you are threatening their bodies or hives. That being said, some wasp species (like the Yellow Jacket) are very aggressive. Some people aren’t very allergic (local swelling and itching) and others can die from anaphylactic shock, so please be careful! Also, allergies get worse the more often you get stung. Black Widow Spiders These lovely arachnids like to hide in cool, dark places. They are pretty distinguishable by their large black bodies and long black legs, but if you get the pleasure of peering under them, they should also have a red hour-glass on their ‘belly’. They typically won’t attack you unless you threaten them or squish them. Try to look under leaves and fruit before you touch the plants you are foraging, because you never know where these critters can be hiding. They dwell in sticky, convoluted webs that don't appear to have any sort of particular rhyme or reason. BEWARE: if you do get bitten you should definitely go to the emergency room because the venom is pretty gnarly. Keep in mind, there are also spiders called Brown Widows that look very similar but are mostly brown instead of black. Western Diamondback Rattlesnake You probably won’t be finding any of these venomous, fanged reptiles on campus, but if you venture into the Los Padres Mountains, during the dryer months, you’re bound to stumble upon one. The venom of these critters is very dangerous; if bitten, get someone to help you to the Emergency Room immediately (movement will spread the poison faster). If the triangular head and the diamond shaped patterns don’t scare you away, the loud rattle sound coming from its tail should! When foraging, avoid wandering through tall, dry grass or stepping in places where you can’t fully see the ground. Other Dangerous Plants We advise to not just go around putting plants in your mouth. Please only forage for plants that you can identify with 100% certainty. Get a botanist or ethnobotanical expert to help you identify plants if you have even a fraction of a doubt. Deadly Hemlock and Water Hemlock, Deadly Nightshade, and Castor Bean are all plants we need to avoid eating, and even touching. These plants are toxic and dangerous, as their names suggest. Stinging Nettle is actually edible, but if you don’t prepare it correctly or touch it with bare skin, you can get hurt.

  • News Archive | Hoelle Lab

    News Archive February 9-August 31, 2018 Garimpeiros: The Wildcat Miners of Amazon Rainforest Curators: Jeffrey Hoelle and Jonathan Rissmeyer, UCSB Library Senior Artist. Public Exhibition at the Ocean Gallery of the UCSB Davidson Library. December 13, 2016 Gold Fever in the Forest UCSB Current press release on Sapiens article, "Gold Glimmers in the Amazon." November 1, 2017 From Contested to Green Frontiers in Amazonia University of Florida, Center for Latin American Studies press release. February 20, 2018 The Brazilian Cash Cow UCSB Sustainability Living Lab July 6, 2018 Digging Deeper UCSB Current press release on "Garimpeiros" exhibition September 1, 2016 UCSB Public Affairs and Communications News Release for "Rainforest Cowboys" September, 2015 News Coverage of Public Lectures in San Angelo, Texas Fort Concho Students Learn About Life in the Amazon , September 16, 2015 San Angelo Native to Speak on Cowboys and the Amazon (San Angelo Standard Times) , September 10, 2015 Former Resident to Discuss New Book (San Angelo Standard Times) , September 6, 2015 "Postcards from the Amazon" Professor Returns to San Angelo (SA Standard Times) September 9, 2015 2015-2016 Publicity for Academic Lectures in the United States by Professor Hoelle Angelo State University , September 14, 2015 University of Texas at Austin Geography & Environment Colloquium , September 18, 2015 University of Texas -San Antonio Anthropology Fall Lecture Series, September 21, 2015 Southwestern University, September 22, 2015 University of Florida, October 9, 2015 UC Berkeley Geography Colloquium, October 14, 2015 UC Santa Cruz Environmental Studies, November 2, 2015 San Diego State Geography, December 11, 2015 Brown University , February 24, 2016 Yale Agrarian Studies Colloquium , February, 2016 Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Presentation, May 2, 2016 April, 2016 Media coverage of The Conversation article May 31, 2016 Rainforest Cowboys LASA Book Prize Press Release and Announcements UCSB Public Affairs and Communications, News Release , "A Best Book" University of Texas Press Twitter announcement on book award #1 University of Texas Press Twitter announcement on book award #2 August, 2016 Publicity and Press Coverage of Lectures in Rio Branco, Acre and Belem, Para (Brazil) Federal University of Para (UFPA)

  • Sea Glass Mosaic Frame | Hoelle Lab

    DIY: Sea Glass Mosaic frame Tutorial by: Natalie Plumb Anthropology Researcher Home About Projects Sea glass is one of the greatest treasures you can find while beachcombing. Each piece of glass is entirely unique in color, shape, and texture. It is produced by the combined efforts of humans and the ocean. Glass from broken bottles tossed into the ocean or left as litter on the beach is swallowed by the tide. The initial jagged edges of each piece of glass are gradually worn down and smoothed out by rubbing against ocean rocks and course sand. Beachcombing for sea glass is a perfect way to avoid taking materials such as shells that may otherwise be used by ocean and coastline-dwelling organisms. While beautiful, sea glass is human-made and does not belong in the ocean, making it the ideal material for beachcombing artists to craft one of a kind pieces, while also helping to clean up the ocean and coastline. Sea glass can be used to make numerous forms of art, including jewelry, decorative tiles, mutli-medium collages, and mosaics. With sea glass, you can easily turn a simple wooden picture frame into a thoughtful, low-cost present for your friend or loved one. All you need to do is start beachcombing! Where to Find Sea Glass: Over my three years at UCSB, I have found sea glass in virtually every section of the campus and Isla Vista coastline. However, the most reliable spot for finding the widest variety of sea glass shapes and colors is directly perpendicular to the graffiti structure just east of Coal Oil Point (Sands Beach). This local landmark is primarily referred to as the "Jailhouse" and provides the last traces of the Campbell Ranch beach house built in the 1920s (Gustafson). At low tide, the waves recede, exposing the underlying rocks and tide pools , where you can find some of the best sea glass our coastline has to offer. You will also encounter tide pool dwelling creatures such as hermit crabs and sea anemones . ​ To read more about the history of the Jailhouse and to find this local landmark on a map, visit the Isla Vista Local Wiki page. IV Local Wiki Photograph by Craig Moe Materials You Will Need: sea glass (of all shapes, sizes, and colors you found while beachcombing) wooden picture frame (you can make from driftwood or purchase from your local craft store) old paint brush (for applying the adhesive) multi-surface adhesive (you can purchase from your local craft store) strainer (for washing salt and dirt from the sea glass) white acrylic paint (you can purchase from your local craft store) towel (for drying sea glass) your favorite photograph (to complete the perfect gift) ​ Note: Make sure to apply the adhesive outside or in a well ventilated area. Photograph by Marco Mazza Step by Step: Gather all materials. (see above for complete list) Paint wooden frame with white acrylic paint. Make sure to fully cover the front and all four sides of the entire frame . Let the frame dry in the sun for 5-10 minutes. While the frame is drying, wash the sea glass in a strainer to remove all salt, dirt, and sand. Spread glass in one layer onto a towel. Let the sea glass dry in the sun for 10-15 minutes. Apply the adhesive to the front of the wooden frame using an old paint brush. Do NOT apply adhesive to the sides of the frame . Let sit for 2 minutes before applying the sea glass. Apply the adhesive to the back of the piece of sea glass. Press firmly onto the frame and hold in place for 5 seconds. Repeat for each piece of sea glass until you have covered the entire frame. Let the finished frame dry for 24 hours before placing the photograph in the frame. Enjoy! Tutorial by Natalie Plumb Try Another Project Sources: Britta Gustafson et al. "The Jailhouse." Isla Vista Local Wiki, 2013. January 2020. Image of Jailhouse by Craig Moe, 2013. Image of sea glass by Marco Mazza, 2020. Tutorial music: "Day Trips" by Ketsa. Raising Frequency . Free Music Archive.

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