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IV ETHNOBOTANY PROJECT

DIY: Ethnobotany Classes

Are you an educator? Do you want to teach your students or participants about ethnobotany, but don't know where to start?  Here are a couple samples of classes that Kirsten has taught over the last couple years. We encourage you to use the teaching materials that follow, either for your own classes or to supplement your own knowledge! Please just remember to give Kirsten Cook credit where it’s due.

Chumash Ethnobotany

For UCSB Adventure Programs, I have been helping them move programming online since March 2020, during COVID-19. One of the many Nature Awareness and Eco-Adventure workshops I taught was on Chumash Ethnobotany. Check out the recording and the slideshow I created.

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How to Identify Plants

For UCSB Adventure Programs, I have been helping them move programming online since March 2020, during COVID-19. One of the many Nature Awareness and Eco-Adventure workshops I taught was on How to Identify Plants. Check out the recording and the slideshow I created.

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Ethnobotany Lesson Plans

For a two-quarter-long Environmental Education class (taught by Briget Lewin) I created and taught a five-lesson non-formal Ethnobotany/Nature Connection unit. This was the most amazing class I have ever taken and the biggest learning experience of my entire life.

A takeaway from my teaching philosophy which might help you understand why I undertook such a project: 

“My personal educational passion is nature connection, which helps create a lifelong loving attitude towards the outdoors and forms a basis for later environmental education and advocacy to take root. I believe that nature connection must come before advocacy because without that love, learning about environmental problems leaves students feeling hopeless instead of invigorated and ready to take action.” 

“The objective of this unit is to facilitate nature connection through development of relationships with local flora in order to create a healthier baseline for later environmental education and advocacy. This will involve hands-on experience with ethnobotanical uses of plants by learning about hazards, identification techniques, eating and preparing food, and making crafts. All lessons will circle back to the Native American necessity for connection with nature.”

Ethnobotany Lesson: Snacks

Instructor: Kirsten Cook; should be experienced in plant identification, especially local flora

Audience: People interested in and excited about the natural world

Overview: This lesson will focus on the identification and collection of edible plants that can be eaten raw. We will demonstrate how we can snack for free while in a hurry on the way to class or while hiking on the trail. We will strengthen our connection to nature with the knowledge that even if we are lost in the wilds, we can feed ourselves. We will discuss how native peoples used and collected these plants easily while on the move.

Goals and Objectives:

Cognitive Objectives

  • After lecture on identification of common local edible plants, participants should be able to correctly name and identify said plants. This will be assessed in the written questions at the end of the lesson.

  • After discussion of edible plant identification, participants should be able to appraise a nearby location and indicate which plants are edible. This will be assessed via the ‘tree tag’ game in which they may be ‘it’ if they cannot find the correct plant.

Affective Objectives

  • After gathering and eating wild and ornamental plants, participants should feel more comfortable considering weeds and landscaping as viable food options. This will be assessed by asking them in the assessment at the end how they felt about eating the landscaping at the beginning versus the end of the lesson.

Materials:

  • Camera

  • Sign in sheet

  • Binder paper for participants to write assessment answers on

  • Pens/pencils

  • Collection of plants for the pattern recognition game (from SSMS courtyard)

Management and Safety Considerations:

  • Approximately a 2 hour class. 

  • Between 5 and 10 participants per instructor. Less participants to each instructor is better. 

  • Should be located somewhere outdoors that is relevant to all of their lives (their school campus or parks in their neighborhood) with a lot of open space and many different kinds of edible plants, both wild and ornamental.

  • Place should be chosen with only manageable, common hazards so you do not have to worry too much about safety issues.

 

Procedure:

East  ( ˜5 minutes + 3mins/person)

  • Meet at the pond in Storke Tower Pond and wait 5 minutes for late comers to show up before introducing the lesson. 

  • Have everyone write their name and email on the sign in sheet as they arrive. 

  • Introduce yourself and the lesson.

    • Today’s lesson is all about edible plants! Specifically ones that we can find on campus and eat directly without preparation. I want to help you all be more comfortable with the action of picking plants as snacks.

    • This lesson also addresses two important topics: food insecurity and eating locally. Can anyone tell me what those two topics mean to you and why we should address them as a society?

      • Food insecurity is a major problem even here in Santa Barbara. Over 42% of students report experiencing some level of concern over food due to lack of funds, from low nutrition to skipping meals. Knowing how to eat plants around us that are free is a step in the right direction to helping reduce hunger.

      • Eating locally is an environmental movement to reduce energy use in food production, keep money in the local economy, and support small scale farms and gardens. This is because if your food comes from our local small farm Fairview Gardens in Goleta instead of some massive plantation in Chile, we save hundreds of thousands of gallons of fuel.

  • We are going to do some introductions to start off so that any stragglers can catch up.

  • Let’s go in a circle and share our names, pronouns, something you are feeling grateful for this morning, and what you would think if you saw someone pick and eat a handful of those fruits over there.

  • Now, again in a circle: if you could be any type of edible plant (fruit, vegetable, grain, etc.), what would you be and why? I want you to try to find a plant that describes you as a person, or maybe how you want to be viewed.

  • Try to get them really thinking about the plant they chose. 

    • “That fruit has a really hard pit in the middle. Do you feel that you have inner strength?” “How do you think that the spiky skin emulates you?” “Can I infer that the gooey insides mean you are an emotional person?” “Is the color of the fruit related to how you associate yourself with the plant?” 

  • Make sure you also participate in the circle share. 

    • Before we start moving, I want to show you all something really cool that the school is doing. Remember those fruits that a person was hypothetically eating? They’re from the Edible Campus Project. The group is planting edible plants in an effort to address food insecurity. 

  • Show them the tangerine trees

    • Right here in Storke Plaza they have seven potted tangerine trees. I’ve discovered a bunch of other fruit trees as well: several types of Loquats and Guavas, Strawberry Trees, Natal Plums, and Pomegranates. I’m sure there are more or there soon will be!

 

Southeast  ( ˜3 minutes)

  • Begin walking towards the bridge to nowhere.

  • Introduce some excitement by telling a story relevant to foraging while on the move. 

    • We are going to start walking now because we have a lot of ground to cover.

    • I want to bring the relevance of this lesson to your own life and to the lives of native people that came before us. Knowing about edible flora is a really great way to get a snack or even a whole meal when you are in a hurry. On your way to class you can pick and eat some fruit so you aren’t thinking about how hungry you are instead of listening to your professor.

    • Similarly, native people had such a deep understanding of the natural world around them that as they moved between collecting water, hunting, and migrating, they could gather plants to eat on the spot or to save for later meals. 

    • A rather impressive example is a story that has survived to today. Way back in the beginnings of this country, white Europeans were colonizing and expanding across the landmass to seek manifest destiny. Standing in their way were the original inhabitants of the land, Native Americans. We all know a little bit about the devastation wrought by colonizers on the native peoples and obviously there was opposition between the two: one sought to protect the land they worshipped and one sought to develop and ‘civilize’ that land. This is a story of one of those instances of opposition.

    • The United States military was charged with bringing in a group of Apache men in order to move them to a reservation. The Apache were on foot, walking through the wilderness with only the clothes on their backs, whereas the military men were trotting on horseback with caravans of supplies. The military men would move at a fast pace throughout the day and then settle down by their cook fires at night for a hot meal and good sleep in their tents. And yet, even though they had the advantage of horses, they were always a day or two behind the tribe. The Apache, although on foot, stayed ahead of the military for months because they were able to eat what they foraged as they walked, and they never needed to stop to cook. They could eat handfuls of blackberries, or stoop to collect the tubers of Indian Potatoes and nibble until they were full. They never had to set up camp because there was no need to cook anything, they would just sleep under the stars. In the end, the Apache were brought in because the military captured their wives and children that had been hiding separate from the traveling men. 

 

South   (˜25 minutes)

  • Something important to think about is how watering with reclaimed water affects us as foragers. As the plant grows taking in the water, it filters out any contaminants, so the fruits and leaves are safe to eat. 

    • There is the possibility, though, that if the sprinklers get the leaves and fruits wet, they aren’t clean. Basically try to avoid eating plants that have had direct contact with reclaimed water, but don’t worry if they are watered at the roots.

  • Make sure to offer each of the plants to everyone to try! 

  • Ask them to take a look, smell, feel and taste and try to describe the plants as well as possible. Then point out other things they should look for in identification.

    • I call this place the Bridge to Nowhere! In amongst all of this acacia, is Black Mustard and Sour Grass. They are both spring herbs, but Mustard tends to last longer.

      • This is Black Mustard. Can you tell me what you notice about it? Use all your senses! Look, touch, smell, taste.

        • It is identifiable by its yellow clusters of 4 petalled flowers on tall straight stems, seed pods, unevenly toothed and deeply lobed leaves that get quite large as the plant grows. The plant is invasive and is seen up and down California, usually in the front country. It tastes kind of bitter and spicy. You can eat the flowers and immature leaves. The older they, are the more bitter.

      • What stands out to you about sour grass? 

        • It is identifiable by its low to the ground clumps of clover/heart-shaped green leaves that may have brownish patterns on them, yellow 5-petalled trumpet-like flowers in groups at the top of unbranched stems, and their distinctive sour taste. Most of these ones here are dead from too much sun exposure. You can eat the leaves, flowers, and and stems.

  • Walk down to the parking lot

    • This here is a Loquat. Each fruit has between 2 and 8 seeds. Loquats are tropical and sweet, fuzzy, and yellow to orange in color. If the fruit pops off with little effort, it’s ripe. The leaves are evergreen, about 10 inches long, leathery, deeply veined, simple and oblong.

  • Make sure to offer each of the plants to everyone to try! 

  • Ask them to take a look, smell, feel and taste and try to describe the plants as well as possible. Then point out other things they should look for in identification.

  • Walk up the stairs towards the Thunderdome.

    • This tree is a Strawberry Tree, no relation to strawberries but in the same family as Manzanitas and Madrones. You can see the red, cool, peeling bark. The flowers are like little pink bells that are slightly larger than their white counterparts in Manzanitas. The leaves are 2 inches long, oblong and toothed. The fruits are green to yellow to orange to red and are ripe when they are deepest red and pop off easily. The fruits are sweet but have a very strange, bumpy texture that is a little odd on the tongue.

    • These spiky shrubs are Natal Plums. Oddly enough, landscapers decided putting plants with inch-long, poisonous thorns along the bike paths was a good idea. Shiny, deep green leaves. The flowers are snowy white. The fruits have small edible seeds and taste absolutely disgusting when unripe. You want it to be a little soft and dark red or almost purple; they should pull off easily. When the skin is broken the fruit oozes a white fluid called latex; this is something to avoid if you have a latex allergy. Interestingly, on campus there are short and tall natal plums in shrub and tree form!

  • Walk to the drainage/field between the pool and CAPS

    • This is Mallow. It grows almost everywhere, especially areas of compacted or disturbed earth. Its leaves are anywhere from the size of a penny to bigger than your face, fuzzy, have 6 to 8 soft, rounded lobes, are deep green and a little crinkled, and the veins all start from the central point of the stem. The flowers are small, purple, pink or white with 5 petals and grow from the axil where stems come together. They have seeds that look like tiny green pumpkins or sectioned cheese wheels. They usually grow close to the ground but can get up to 7 feet high depending on the type. The flavor of the leaves and seeds is kind of bland, and the furry texture turns a little slimy in your mouth.

    • This one is Pickleweed or Glasswort. It tends to grow in sloughs with briny water where the ocean mixes with freshwater. That’s why it’s salty to the taste. Identification is easy: thin, long rounded oblong succulent green to reddish leaves that branch a lot. 

    • Dandelion, I’m sure you’ve all heard of. The flowers are yellow and alone on unbranched, hollow stalks. Seed stalks are fluffy and white. Leaves are deeply lobed with no bumps or hair and are usually basaly situated. Young leaves and flowers are edible but dandelions are called bitters for a reason. They have a lot of look alikes, most of which are edible.

  • Show them any other edible plants present to prepare for the game

    • These are vetch, fennel, oak, stork’s bill, pineapple weed!

Southwest   (˜15+ minutes)

  • As a formative assessment to see what they have learned about identifying edible plants, play ‘tree tag’. Set boundaries that make sense for the number of people and fitness level of the group

    • Alrighty, now is your chance to prove that you learned something today! 

    • The name of the game is Plant Tag. Basically: one of you is ‘it’ and trying to tag everyone else. The rest of you are trying to not get tagged. I will name a plant that we talked about that will be safety or ‘base’ until I yell another plant name. If you are touching that plant, you can’t be tagged; don’t step on the plant or pick it though, you have to have a hand on it and it must be clearly visible. If you get tagged, you are also ‘it’. The game continues until everyone is ‘it’. The last person to get tagged starts the next game as ‘it’.

  • You can also play a chaos tag version: everyone is it and trying to tag everyone else; if tagged they sit out until the person who tagged them gets out, then they’re back in; they can only win if they tag everyone else out. Still have protective bases that you change constantly to keep them on their toes and so they cannot stay on base the whole time.

  • Plants to name: Mallow, Fennel, Oak, Vetch, Dandelion, Pickleweed, Stork’s Bill, Pineapple Weed

  • Play until they get bored or until you are nearing the end of the class time.

 

West   (˜15 minutes)

  • Walk to SSMS Courtyard

  • This game is to end with some community and teamwork.

    • This next game is all about remembering. I will give you 30 seconds to memorize the pattern and type of plants I set out before you. Then you will get 5 minutes to work together to replicate the pattern from memory. All the plants I used can be found nearby in the courtyard.

    • You all take a moment between yourselves to talk about strategy while I prepare the activity.

  • Prepare plant pattern (nasturtium, jacaranda, jasmine, grass, dandelion look alikes)

    • Alrighty come take a look for 30 seconds. 

    • Now go try to find the plants I used and remake the pattern.

    • Are you sure that’s right? Here’s another 30 seconds to memorize, now make final touches!

 

Northwest   (˜5 minutes)

  • Do you trust me? Everyone close your eyes. I have one final treat for you. I am going to place an edible plant in your hand. Don’t look!

  • What does it feel like? What does it smell like? What does it taste like?

  • Open your eyes! These are nasturtium! They are edible flowers with a very distinctive taste that is akin to peppery mustard. Flowers are yellow or orange or red and interestingly shaped. Leaves are broad, round and flat, with veins radiating out from a central point. They usually grow as vines and ground cover.

North   (˜5 minutes + 2 mins/person)

  • Ask everyone to write down their answers to the assessment questions in preparation for discussion. Pass out the assessment papers.

    • Alright y’all. Take a moment to think on what you did and learned this morning. Please write down your answers to these questions; the more detailed the better because this is partially how my teacher assesses how I have done. Once you’re done, we’ll share with each other what we learned. Please do write down your answers so that I can get the assessments back after the class.

  • Write on whiteboard: feelings at start, feelings now, plants in the past

    • Can you all share your answers to the first 3 questions? How did you feel at the beginning of the class? Did that feeling change? Have you encountered any of these plants in the past?

 

Northeast   (˜2 minutes)

  • Collect the assessments

    • Thank you all so much for coming, it means so much. I really hope you learned something that you will take with you as you wander the world.

    • If you want to learn more about edible and useful plants, check out the Isla Vista Ethnobotany website! It’s linked to the UCSB Anthropology Department.

    • Next lesson is this coming Monday the 21st 3-5pm at Sueño Orchard. We will be preparing or cooking a meal from plants we collect!

Assessment:

  1. At the beginning of the class, how did you feel about picking random plants to eat?

  2. Do you feel any different now at the end of the lesson about eating the landscaping?

  3. Think back to the plants we talked about. Have you noticed any of them before today? Which ones? Where?

  4. Name as many types of edible plants as you can remember from the class.

  5. Choose 2 plants we talked about. How would you describe them?

  6. What did you enjoy about the lesson?

  7. What would you recommend to make the lesson better?

  8. Is there a topic that you wish we had spent more time on? Less? Why?

  9. If you came to more than one of my lessons, how did this lesson compare to the other one(s) you attended?

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Ethnobotany Lesson: Meals

Instructor: Kirsten Cook; should be experienced in plant identification, especially local flora

Audience: People interested in and excited about the natural world

Overview: We will make a dish or two to show how wild edibles can be used to make a delicious and nutritious meal. We will discuss local natives’ staple crops and how they sustainably gathered, cultivated and prepared the food they needed to survive.

Goals and Objectives:

Cognitive Objectives

  • Participants will be able to collaborate to find the plants needed to make the meal. This will be assessed as they search for their plants.

  • Participants should be able to deduce where their plants generally grow, given experience in finding their plant. This will be assessed in the discussion questions.

  • Students should be able to recall basic descriptive factors of their plant after having been given the plant and its written description. This will be assessed as they forage and in the written questionnaire at the end.

  • Students should develop an understanding of how to sustainably forage. This will be assessed as they forage and in the written questionnaire.

Affective Objectives

  • Participants should undergo a growth in confidence as they identify their plant with more and more ease. This will be assessed as they collect plants.

Materials:

  • Camera

  • Papers and pens for them to answer questionnaire

  • Sign in sheet

  • Print out assessment questions

  • To cook the meal:

  • Olive Oil

  • Garlic Salt

  • Pot & Pan

  • Lighter, Fuel and Stove

  • Plates & Cups & Forks

  • In collecting bowls (one bowl per person/pair)

  • Print and cut out descriptions of the plants to collect

  • On the back write the best location to find each plant

  • Pre-collected plants for examples of what to collect (one type in each bowl)

  • Dandelion (leaves and flowers)

  • Black Mustard (leaves and seeds and flowers)

  • Mallow (leaves and seeds and flowers)

  • Wild Radish (seed-pods and leaves and flowers)

  • Nasturtium (leaves and flowers)

  • Hummingbird Sage (leaves and flowers)

  • Sour Grass (stems and flowers)

  • Lemonade Berry (berries)

Management and Safety Considerations:

  • Approximately a 2 hour class. 

  • Between 5 and 10 participants per instructor. Less participants to each instructor is better. 

  • Should be located somewhere outdoors that is relevant to all of their lives (their school campus or parks in their neighborhood) with many different kinds of edible plants, both wild and ornamental.

  • Place should be chosen so that only manageable, common hazards are nearby. The point is to not have to worry about hazards.

Procedure:

East   (˜10 minutes)

  • Pass around sign in sheet

    • We are here today to cook some hopefully yummy food from plants we can harvest right here in our backyard. Last class we walked around campus and ate plants raw, which is cool and all, but there is something inherently more palatable about a hot meal. We will be making a traditional Chumash pine needle tea and stir fry for a snack!

    • I chose this place to meet because it is honestly so amazing. Most of the plants here are edible! Some are growing wild, like the mallow and wild radish. But most of them are planted, like these rows of fruit trees! The apples, nectarines, peaches, and kumquats actually have fruit right now, although none of them are ripe yet. 

    • Let’s go in a circle and introduce ourselves. Please share your name, pronouns and something you are feeling especially grateful for today.

 

Southeast   (˜10 minutes)

  • There are some ground rules for harvesting plants. We need to be sustainable in our picking. Our ancestors, people like the native Chumash, realized this. To survive, they knew they needed to protect the plants they ate for the next season so that they would still have food to eat in the future. Occasionally they would even cultivate the plants that they particularly enjoyed eating, such as oak trees, red maid, and types of Indian potato. They would do controlled burns, clear dead branches and brush, and sew seeds to support desirable plant populations.

  • Although we personally do not need to forage to survive, it is still important for us to do so sustainably so that we are not decimating local ecosystems or ruining the landscaping. Never take more than ⅓ of the specific plant or the population of that plant. Never harvest from small, lone plants or plants that are obviously hurting (ones with holes, fungus, etc).

  • Hand everyone a collecting bowl with the example and descriptions of their plant that they will collect for the meal. Have them pair up if miraculously a lot of people come.

    • This is the plant you will be in charge of collecting for our meal. There is a description of the plant and the parts that I want you to collect. On the back are the locations on our path I have seen the plant before. Of course you can work together, but I want everyone to learn about their own plant specifically.

    • Take a moment to read over the description and study the specimen. 

    • Can you point out all of the identifying factors of the plant? Are there any parts you can’t identify? Take a bite if you want.

 

South   (˜30 minutes)

  • We are going to walk as a group from the Sueño Orchard through Tipi Village, and end in Estero Park. All of the plants you have been assigned should be on the way, so please be on the lookout!

  • As you harvest your plant, if you aren’t sure if you have the correct one, ask someone else in the group to help you out. Come to me if both of you are unsure.

  • Begin with a wander through the orchard. Ask questions about plants without giving away what they are until the participants figure it out or none of them can collectively figure it out. 

  • Make sure to advise them against unsustainable foraging. 

    • “Why wouldn’t you want to take this plant?” “What makes this plant better to eat than that one over there?”

  • Once everyone has collected their assigned plant, find a place to set up camp that won’t be a problem with an open flame (the dirt patch under the tree arch).

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Southwest   (˜5 minutes)

  • We are now going to take a moment to stretch out while we wait for the food to cook. We will be doing a sun salutation that I have adapted a little bit; I call it plant yoga. Please humor me, I got the idea from two different friends so it can’t be that bad. It will be way better barefoot in the grass. 

  • Take off your shoes. 

    • Everyone close your eyes. Breath in deeply through your nose...then out through your mouth...In through your nose...out through your mouth...Keep breathing slowly in and out while I talk.

    • Imagine for a moment that you are a plant...Imagine your broad leaves...how they open up to the sunlight in the morning to create energy through photosynthesis...Imagine how you need rain for your seeds to sprout...The minerals in the soil make your stems grow strong...Reach into the ground...Feel the ground with your roots...Feel as your flowers follow the sun as it crosses the sky every day...

    • Breath in through your nose...out through your mouth...In through your nose...out through your mouth...Now open your eyes, keeping in mind that you are still a plant.

    • Inhale as you bring your hands together at your chest as though you are praying. Continue inhaling as you reach towards the sky. Feel the sunlight. Exhale as you slowly bend at the hips to reach towards the ground. With slightly bent knees, run your hands over the soil. Inhale as you bring your right foot forward into a lunge, then place your hands flat on the ground and bring your left leg back to meet your right in a plank position. Exhale as you lower your body to touch the ground. Inhale the smell of the earth and plants below you as you arch your upper body and look up at the sky. Exhale and push your tailbone into the air while staring at the ground. Inhale as you step forward with your left foot into a lunge. Exhale as you bring your feet together, bent at the waist and reaching for your toes. Inhale as you stand up to your full height and reach for the sun once more. Exhale and bring your hands back together at the center of your chest. Breath in deeply through your nose...then out through your mouth...

West   (˜20 minutes)

  • Make sure to start with the tea so it has longer to steep.

    • We are going to make a traditional Chumash pine needle tea and a stir fry. 

      • The Chumash traditionally drank pine needle tea as a very effective way to get Vitamin C. Native Americans introduced it to European settlers suffering from scurvy. It also has many other traditional medicinal uses and health benefits such as alleviating joint pain, kidney flushing and helping coughs and respiratory infections. Avoid using toxic pines such as Ponderosa, Yew and Norfolk Island Pine. Avoid drinking if thought to be pregnant.

      • The stir fry is just an experimental combination of edible plants. Let’s hope it tastes good!

  • Who wants to help with which?

  • For the tea, cut up or crush the pine needles. Soak them in boiled water for as long as possible. They are very powerfully flavorful when fresh. IF YOU ARE PREGNANT DO NOT DRINK. Drink.

  • For the stir fry, heat up the oil in the pan. Throw in the leaves and seed pods of the nasturtium, wild radish, black mustard, dandelions, and mallow. Sprinkle with garlic salt. When cooked, garnish with flowers and serve. 

  • EAT!  Now the moment you have all been waiting for: it is time to eat what we have made!

  • This can be a time for casual chatting. It can also be made into a discussion about relevant topics; whatever works best for the group.

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Northwest   (˜7 minutes)

  • Hand out assessment questions and paper and pens

    • If y’all don’t mind staying a bit longer, please write out your answers to these questions. I’d like to see what you learned and how I did, so the more information you can give me, the better! We will discuss some of them after you are done.

  • North ˜2 minutes/person

    • Alright, looks like everyone is about finished. We are going to go in a circle again and answer a couple questions. Think back to all of the places where you found your plant today; what types of places would you expect to find it in the future and why? What is your most important takeaway from this gathering? 

  • Northeast ˜2 minutes

  • Collect assessments. 

  • Make sure everyone signed in.

    • Thank you all so much for coming! It means so much that I get to share such an important part of my life with other people.

    • My next and last lesson is this Wednesday 5-7pm at Pelican Park on DP. We are going to be making woven crafts out of flax and tule, emulating how Native Americans could have made rope, clothing and baskets. 

Assessment:

  1. What plant were you assigned to collect? Describe it with at least 3 out of your 5 senses.

  2. Have you ever noticed your plant before? Where did you usually encounter it? 

  3. Where would you expect to encounter your plant in the future? Why?

  4. How does a person ‘sustainably forage’? What shouldn’t you do if you are trying to ‘sustainably forage’?

  5. What did you enjoy about the lesson?

  6. What would you recommend to make the lesson better?

  7. Is there a topic that you wish we had spent more time on? Less? Why?

  8. If you came to more than one of my lessons, how did this lesson compare to the other one(s) you attended?

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